0
Research Papers

Experimental and Numerical Flow Analysis of Low-Speed Fans at Highly Loaded Windmilling Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Aurélie Ortolan

SAFRAN Technofan,
Blagnac 31700, France;
ISAE-SUPAERO,
Université de Toulouse,
Toulouse 31400, France
e-mail: aurelie.ortolan@isae.fr

Suk-Kee Courty-Audren, Nicolas Binder, Xavier Carbonneau, Nicolás García Rosa

ISAE-SUPAERO,
Université de Toulouse,
Toulouse 31400, France

Florent Challas

SAFRAN Technofan,
Blagnac 31700, France

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 22, 2016; final manuscript received December 16, 2016; published online March 7, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(7), 071009 (Mar 07, 2017) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1202; doi: 10.1115/1.4035656 History: Received August 22, 2016; Revised December 16, 2016

This paper aims for the analysis of experimental and numerical results of windmilling flow topologies far from freewheeling condition. Two major cooling fans were investigated: a baseline design and an innovative one meant to reach good performance in both compressor and turbine modes. Experiments are conducted with global and local characterizations to determine energy recovery potential and local loss mechanisms. Also, tests were performed on a turbofan engine to confirm some trends observed on the cooling fans. The numerical study is carried out with mixing plane steady simulations, the results of which are in fair agreement with experimental data. The difference of local topology between freewheeling and highly loaded windmill demonstrates that classical deviation rules such as Carter's are not well-suited to highly loaded windmilling flows. Finally, under certain conditions, the minor influence of the stator on the rotor topology indicates that nonrotating elements can be considered as loss generators.

Copyright © 2017 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Courty-Audren, S.-K. , 2015, “ Identification et Compréhension des Mécanismes Aérodynamiques Liés au Potentiel de Récupération D’énergie. Application à un Ventilateur Axial Subsonique en Autorotation,” Ph.D. thesis, ISAE-SUPAERO, Toulouse, France.
Gunn, E. J. , and Hall, C. A. , 2015, “ Loss and Deviation in Windmilling Fans,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(10), p. 101002.
Garcia Rosa, N. , Pilet, J. , Lecordix, J.-L. , Barenes, R. , and Lavergne, G. , 2013, “ Experimental Analysis of the Flow Through the Fan Stage of a High-Bypass Turbofan in Windmilling Conditions,” 10th European Conference on Turbomachinery, Lappeenranta, Finland, Apr. 15–19, Paper No. ETC2013-162.
Prasad, D. , and Lord, W. K. , 2010, “ Internal Losses and Flow Behavior of a Turbofan Stage at Windmill,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(3), p. 031007. [CrossRef]
Binder, N. , Courty-Audren, S.-K. , Duplaa, S. , Dufour, G. , and Carbonneau, X. , 2015, “ Theoretical Analysis of the Aerodynamics of Low-Speed Fans in Free and Load-Controlled Windmilling Operation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(10), p. 101001. [CrossRef]
Gill, A. , 2011, “ Four Quadrant Axial Flow Compressor Performance,” Ph.D. thesis, Stellenbosch University, Stellenbosch, South Africa.
Ortolan, A. , Carbonneau, X. , Binder, N. , Challas, F. , and Meauze, G. , 2015, “ Innovative Fan Design for Both Compressor and Windmilling High Performance,” 12th International Symposium on Experimental and Computational Aerothermodynamics of Internal Flows, Lerici, Italy, July 13–16, Paper No. ISAIF12-068.
Turner, R. C. , and Sparkes, D. W. , 1963, “ Complete Characteristics for a Single Stage Axial Flow Fan,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 178(9), pp. 14–27.
Garcia Rosa, N. , Dufour, G. , Barenes, R. , and Lavergne, G. , 2015, “ Experimental Analysis of the Global Performance and the Flow Through a High-Bypass Turbofan in Windmilling Conditions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051001. [CrossRef]
NUMECA, 2013, “ User Manual FINETM/Turbo v.9.0.2,” NUMECA, Brussels, Belgium.
Cumpsty, N. A. , 2004, Compressor Aerodynamics, Krieger, Malabar, FL.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

R1S1 and R1S2 characteristics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

R2S2 and R2S1 characteristics

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The DGEN 380 turbofan engine

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Velocity diagrams from compressor to turbine mode for fan 1

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Velocity diagrams from compressor to turbine mode for fan 2

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Illustration of the DAEP windmilling test facility and the numerical domain (filled)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Illustration of the measurement stations of the DGEN 380 turbofan

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Experimental and numerical loading to reduced flow coefficient diagram for R1S1 and R2S2 configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Experimental and numerical work distribution for R1S1 and R2S2 configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Experimental and numerical rotor absolute total pressure variation for R1S1 and R2S2 configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Experimental loading to reduced flow coefficient diagram for the four machines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Experimental stator absolute total pressure variation for R2S2 and R2S1 configurations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Computed entropy contours at rotor outlet for R1S1 configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Experimental loading coefficient for the four machines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Experimental rotor outlet deviation for the four machines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Experimental axial velocity profiles at rotor outlet for the four machines

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Experimental work distribution for R2S2 configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Experimental work and losses distributions for R1S1 configuration

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Experimental rotor outlet deviation for R2S2 configuration versus Carter's deviation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Experimental rotor outlet deviation for R1S1 configuration versus Carter's deviation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Experimental axial velocity and loading coefficient profiles at rotor outlet for the DGEN380 at freewindmill

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Computed entropy contours at rotor outlet for R2S2 configuration

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In