Research Papers

Analysis of Fan Stage Conceptual Design Attributes for Boundary Layer Ingestion

[+] Author and Article Information
D. K. Hall

Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: dkhall@mit.edu

E. M. Greitzer, C. S. Tan

Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received December 5, 2016; final manuscript received December 9, 2016; published online March 7, 2017. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 139(7), 071012 (Mar 07, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1310; doi: 10.1115/1.4035631 History: Received December 05, 2016; Revised December 09, 2016

This paper describes a new conceptual framework for three-dimensional turbomachinery flow analysis and its use to assess fan stage attributes for mitigating adverse effects of inlet distortion due to boundary layer ingestion (BLI). A nonaxisymmetric throughflow analysis has been developed to define fan flow with inlet distortion. The turbomachinery is modeled using momentum and energy source distributions that are determined as a function of local flow conditions and specified blade camber surface geometry. Comparison with higher-fidelity computational and experimental results shows the analysis captures the principal flow redistribution and distortion transfer effects associated with BLI. Distortion response is assessed for a range of (i) design flow and stagnation enthalpy rise coefficients, (ii) rotor spanwise work profiles, (iii) rotor–stator spacings, and (iv) nonaxisymmetric stator geometries. Of the approaches examined, nonaxisymmetric stator geometry and increased stage flow and stagnation enthalpy rise coefficients provide the greatest reductions in rotor flow nonuniformity, and may offer the most potential for mitigating performance loss due to BLI inlet distortion.

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Fig. 1

Comparison of three-dimensional fan rotor geometry and source distribution volume for equivalent model flow

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Fig. 5

Spanwise distributions of axial velocity normalized by midspan wheel speed upstream and downstream of the rotor; comparison of throughflow calculation and measurements [14]

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Fig. 6

Inlet stagnation pressure distribution; comparison of measurements [22] (left) and nonaxisymmetric throughflow calculation inlet boundary condition (right)

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Fig. 4

Stagnation pressure and enthalpy rise characteristics with uniform inlet conditions; comparison of throughflow calculation and measurements [14]

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Fig. 2

Geometric description of local blade camber surface normal n̂, relative velocity W, and momentum source f

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Fig. 7

Circumferential distributions of rotor inlet axial velocity and absolute swirl angle; comparison of nonaxisymmetric throughflow calculation and measurements [14]

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Fig. 3

Meridional geometry of Whittle Laboratory BLI rig computational domain

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Fig. 11

Meridional geometry of fan stage domain for design sensitivity study, with three axial stator locations shown

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Fig. 12

Circumferential distributions of rotor streamtube contraction and diffusion factor at 50% span for baseline (0), increased (A), and decreased (B) flow and stagnation enthalpy rise coefficient designs

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Fig. 8

Calculated rotor inlet relative flow angle distortion (a), stagnation enthalpy rise (b), streamtube contraction (c), and diffusion factor 180 deg (d)

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Fig. 10

Calculated stator inlet stagnation pressure (a), inlet axial velocity (b), inlet absolute swirl angle (c), and diffusion factor (d)

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Fig. 9

Circumferential distributions of stator inlet axial velocity and absolute swirl angle; comparison of nonaxisymmetric throughflow calculation and measurements [14]

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Fig. 13

Circumferential distributions of rotor exit static pressure and diffusion factor at 90% span for baseline (0), closely spaced (E), and nonaxisymmetric (H) stator designs




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