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research-article

Measurements and Characterization of Turbulence in the Tip Region of an Axial Compressor Rotor

[+] Author and Article Information
Yuanchao Li

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 223 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
yli131@jhu.edu

Huang Chen

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 223 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
hchen98@jhu.edu

Joseph Katz

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, 122 Latrobe Hall, 3400 N. Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218, USA
katz@jhu.edu

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4037773 History: Received August 03, 2017; Revised August 18, 2017

Abstract

Modeling of turbulent flows in axial turbomachines is challenging due to the high spatial and temporal variability in the distribution of strain rate components, especially in the tip region of rotor blades. High-resolution stereo-PIV measurements performed in a refractive index matched facility in a series of closely-spaced planes provide a comprehensive database for determining all components in the Reynolds stress and strain rate tensors. Results are also used for calculating the turbulent kinetic energy production rate and transport terms by mean flow and turbulence. They elucidate some but not all of the observed phenomena, such as the high anisotropy, high turbulence levels in the vicinity of the tip leakage vortex (TLV) center, and in the shear layer connecting it to the blade suction side tip corner. The applicability of popular Reynolds stress models based on eddy-viscosity is also evaluated by calculating it from the ratio between stress and strain components. Results vary substantially, depending on which components are involved, ranging from large positive to negative values. In some areas, e.g., in the tip gap and around the TLV, the local stresses and strains do not appear to be correlated at all. In terms of effect on the mean flow, for most of the tip region, the mean advection terms are much higher than the Reynolds stress spatial gradients, i.e., the flow dynamics is dominated by pressure-driven transport. However, they are of similar magnitude in the shear layer, where modeling would be particularly challenging.

Copyright (c) 2017 by ASME
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