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Research Papers

Investigation on the Shock Control Using Grooved Surface in a Linear Turbine Nozzle

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinguo Lei

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China

Mingxu Qi

School of Mechanical Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: qimx@bit.edu.cn

Harold Sun, Liangjun Hu

Research and Innovation Center,
Ford Motor Company,
Dearborn, MI 48124

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 19, 2017; final manuscript received August 25, 2017; published online October 3, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 139(12), 121008 (Oct 03, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1122; doi: 10.1115/1.4037860 History: Received August 19, 2017; Revised August 25, 2017

Radial flow variable nozzle turbine (VNT) enables better matching between a turbocharger and engine and can improve the engine performance as well as decrease the engine emissions, especially when the engine works at low-end operation points. With increased nozzle loading, stronger shock wave and clearance leakage flow may be generated and consequently introduces strong rotor–stator interaction between turbine nozzle and rotor, which is a key concern of rotor high-cycle fatigue (HCF) failure. With the purpose of developing a low shock wave intensity turbine nozzle, the influence of grooved vane on the shock wave characteristics is investigated in the present paper. A Schlieren visualization experiment was first carried out on a linear turbine nozzle with smooth surface and the behavior of the shock wave was studied. Numerical simulations were also performed on the turbine nozzle. Guided by the visualization and numerical simulation, grooves were designed on the nozzle surface where the shock wave was originated and numerical simulations were performed to investigate the influence of grooves on the shock wave characteristics. Results indicate that for a smooth nozzle configuration, the intensity of the shock wave increases as the expansion ratios increase, while the onset position is shifted downstream to the nozzle trailing edge. For a nozzle configuration with grooved vane, the position of the shock wave onset is shifted upstream compared to the one with a smooth surface configuration, and the intensity of the shock wave and the static pressure (Ps) distortion at the nozzle vane exit plane are significantly depressed.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of Schlieren photography test

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Fig. 2

The experiment section

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Fig. 3

The linear nozzle vanes

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Fig. 4

Influences of mesh size on the shock wave structure (smooth vane): (a) 1.8 × 106 cells, (b) 2.1 × 106 cells, (c) 3.1 × 106 cells, and (d) 3.7 × 106 cells

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Fig. 5

Influences of mesh size on the shock wave structure (grooved vane): (a) 1.8 × 106 cells, (b) 2.1 × 106 cells, (c) 3.1 × 106 cells, and (d) 3.7 × 106 cells

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Fig. 6

Computational mesh: (a) computational domain, (b) the inner mesh on the nozzle and endwall, and (c) zoom-in view of mesh near the grooves

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Fig. 7

Validation results on nozzle mass flow rate

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Fig. 8

Shock wave structure field at different expansion ratios in smooth nozzle: (a) π = 1.5, (b) π = 1.8, (c) π = 2, and (d) π = 2.2

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Fig. 9

Calculated density contour and isoline plots: (a) π = 1.8, (b) π = 2.0, and (c) π = 2.2

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Fig. 10

Mach number contours at nozzle midspan (π = 2): (a) smooth vane and (b) grooved vane

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Fig. 11

The Mach number distribution across the shock wave

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Fig. 13

Shock wave structure (π = 1.8): (a) Schlieren image and (b) numerical result

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Fig. 14

Shock wave structure (π = 2.0): (a) Schlieren image and (b) numerical result

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Fig. 15

Shock wave structure (π = 2.2): (a) Schlieren image and (b) numerical result

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Fig. 16

Shock wave structure (π = 2.5): (a) Schlieren image and (b) numerical result

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Fig. 17

Density gradient in smooth and grooved vanes: (a) π = 2.0, (b) π = 2.2, and (c) π = 2.5

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Fig. 18

Plot sections downstream the nozzle trailing edge

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Fig. 19

Ps contour downstream the nozzle (π = 2.0): (a) smooth vane and (b) grooved vane

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Fig. 20

Ps contour downstream the nozzle (π = 2.2): (a) smooth vane and (b) grooved vane

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Fig. 21

Ps contour downstream the nozzle (π = 2.5): (a) smooth vane and (b) grooved vane

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Fig. 22

Ps along sections downstream the nozzle: (a) π = 2.0, (b) π = 2.2, and (c) π = 2.5

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