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Research Papers

Characterizing the Influence of Impeller Exit Recirculation on Centrifugal Compressor Work Input

[+] Author and Article Information
Charles Stuart

School of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Queen’s University Belfast,
Belfast BT9 5AH, UK
e-mail: cstuart05@qub.ac.uk

Stephen Spence

School of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Queen’s University Belfast,
Belfast BT9 5AH, UK
e-mail: s.w.spence@qub.ac.uk

Dietmar Filsinger

IHI Charging Systems International,
Heidelberg 69126, Germany
e-mail: d.filsinger@ihi-csi.de

Andre Starke

IHI Charging Systems International,
Heidelberg 69126, Germany
e-mail: a.starke@ihi-csi.de

Sung In Kim

School of Mechanical and Aerospace
Engineering,
Queen’s University Belfast,
Belfast BT9 5AH, UK
e-mail: s.kim@qub.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 5, 2017; final manuscript received September 19, 2017; published online October 25, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(1), 011005 (Oct 25, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1147; doi: 10.1115/1.4038120 History: Received September 05, 2017; Revised September 19, 2017

Impeller recirculation is a loss which has long been considered in one-dimensional (1D) modeling; however, the full extent of its impact on stage performance has not been analyzed. Recirculation has traditionally been considered purely as a parasitic (or external) loss, i.e., one which absorbs work but does not contribute to total pressure rise across the stage. Having extensively analyzed the impact of recirculation on the impeller exit flow field, it was possible to show that it has far-reaching consequences beyond that of increasing total temperature. The overall aim of this package of work is to apply a much more physical treatment to the impact of impeller exit recirculation (and the aerodynamic blockage associated with it) and hence realize an improvement in the 1D stage performance prediction of a number of turbocharger centrifugal compressors. The factors influencing the presence and extent of this recirculation are numerous, requiring detailed investigations to successfully understand its sources and to characterize its extent. A combination of validated three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data and gas stand test data for six automotive turbocharger compressor stages was employed to achieve this aim. In order to capture the variation of the blockage presented to the flow with both geometry and operating condition, an approach involving the impeller outlet to inlet area ratio and a novel flow coefficient term were employed. The resulting data permitted the generation of a single equation to represent the impeller exit blockage levels for the entire operating map of all the six compressor stages under investigation. With an understanding of the extent of the region of recirculating flow realized and the key drivers leading to its creation identified, it was necessary to comprehend how the resulting blockage influenced compressor performance. Consideration was given to the impact on impeller work input through modification of the impeller exit velocity triangle, incorporating the introduction of the concept of an “aerodynamic meanline” to account for the reduction in the size of the active flow region due to the presence of blockage. The sensitivity of the stage to this change was then related back to the level of backsweep applied to the impeller. As a result of this analysis, the improvement in the 1D performance prediction of the six compressor stages is demonstrated. In addition, a number of design recommendations are presented to ensure that the detrimental effects associated with the presence of impeller exit recirculation can be minimized.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Schematic of impeller exhibiting inlet and exit recirculation

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Fig. 3

Impeller exit velocity triangle for backswept blading in the absence of slip

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Fig. 2

Spanwise recirculation at impeller exit

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Fig. 8

B2 levels and impact on work input coefficient for 100% speedline of C-4

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Fig. 7

Impact of B2 on meanline blade angle for C-4 at 100% speed

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Fig. 4

Relocation of meanline due to aerodynamic blockage

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Fig. 9

Single passage CFD setup [2]

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Fig. 10

Aerodynamic blockage calculation procedure

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Fig. 11

Aerodynamic blockage calculation example

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Fig. 6

Overall impact of aerodynamic blockage on impeller exit velocity triangle

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Fig. 5

Example of blade angle variation from hub to shroud

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Fig. 12

Extracted impeller exit blockage results for all the six geometries

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Fig. 18

Comparison of C-2 simulation results and test data

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Fig. 19

Comparison of C-3 simulation results and test data

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Fig. 20

Comparison of C-4 simulation results and test data

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Fig. 21

Comparison of C-5 simulation results and test data

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Fig. 22

Comparison of C-6 simulation results and test data

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Fig. 15

Comparison of diabatic and corrected efficiency test data for C-4

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Fig. 16

Comparison of impeller exit shroud static pressures for C-3 and C-5

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Fig. 17

Comparison of C-1 simulation results and test data

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Fig. 13

Comparison between CFD extracted blockage with that predicted by Eq. (9)

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Fig. 14

Schematic of QUB turbocharger test facility

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