Research Papers

Characterizing the Influence of Impeller Exit Recirculation on Centrifugal Compressor Work Input

[+] Author and Article Information
Charles Stuart

School of Mechanical and Aerospace
Queen’s University Belfast,
Belfast BT9 5AH, UK
e-mail: cstuart05@qub.ac.uk

Stephen Spence

School of Mechanical and Aerospace
Queen’s University Belfast,
Belfast BT9 5AH, UK
e-mail: s.w.spence@qub.ac.uk

Dietmar Filsinger

IHI Charging Systems International,
Heidelberg 69126, Germany
e-mail: d.filsinger@ihi-csi.de

Andre Starke

IHI Charging Systems International,
Heidelberg 69126, Germany
e-mail: a.starke@ihi-csi.de

Sung In Kim

School of Mechanical and Aerospace
Queen’s University Belfast,
Belfast BT9 5AH, UK
e-mail: s.kim@qub.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 5, 2017; final manuscript received September 19, 2017; published online October 25, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(1), 011005 (Oct 25, 2017) (13 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1147; doi: 10.1115/1.4038120 History: Received September 05, 2017; Revised September 19, 2017

Impeller recirculation is a loss which has long been considered in one-dimensional (1D) modeling; however, the full extent of its impact on stage performance has not been analyzed. Recirculation has traditionally been considered purely as a parasitic (or external) loss, i.e., one which absorbs work but does not contribute to total pressure rise across the stage. Having extensively analyzed the impact of recirculation on the impeller exit flow field, it was possible to show that it has far-reaching consequences beyond that of increasing total temperature. The overall aim of this package of work is to apply a much more physical treatment to the impact of impeller exit recirculation (and the aerodynamic blockage associated with it) and hence realize an improvement in the 1D stage performance prediction of a number of turbocharger centrifugal compressors. The factors influencing the presence and extent of this recirculation are numerous, requiring detailed investigations to successfully understand its sources and to characterize its extent. A combination of validated three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) data and gas stand test data for six automotive turbocharger compressor stages was employed to achieve this aim. In order to capture the variation of the blockage presented to the flow with both geometry and operating condition, an approach involving the impeller outlet to inlet area ratio and a novel flow coefficient term were employed. The resulting data permitted the generation of a single equation to represent the impeller exit blockage levels for the entire operating map of all the six compressor stages under investigation. With an understanding of the extent of the region of recirculating flow realized and the key drivers leading to its creation identified, it was necessary to comprehend how the resulting blockage influenced compressor performance. Consideration was given to the impact on impeller work input through modification of the impeller exit velocity triangle, incorporating the introduction of the concept of an “aerodynamic meanline” to account for the reduction in the size of the active flow region due to the presence of blockage. The sensitivity of the stage to this change was then related back to the level of backsweep applied to the impeller. As a result of this analysis, the improvement in the 1D performance prediction of the six compressor stages is demonstrated. In addition, a number of design recommendations are presented to ensure that the detrimental effects associated with the presence of impeller exit recirculation can be minimized.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Harley, P. , Spence, S. W. , Filsinger, D. , Dietrich, M. , and Early, J. , 2015, “ Meanline Modeling of Inlet Recirculation in Automotive Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(1), p. 011007.
Stuart, C. , Spence, S. W. , Filsinger, D. , Starke, A. , Kim, S. , and Harley, P. , 2015, “ An Evaluation of Vaneless Diffuser Modelling Methods as a Means of Improving the Off-Design Performance Prediction of Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-42657.
Stuart, C. , Spence, S. W. , Filsinger, D. , Starke, A. , and Kim, S. , 2015, “ A 1-D Vaneless Diffuser Model Accounting for the Effects of Spanwise Flow Stratification,” International Gas Turbine Congress (IGTC), Tokyo, Japan, Nov. 15–20, pp. 485–494. http://pure.qub.ac.uk/portal/files/40347019/vaneless.pdf
Aungier, R. H. , 2000, Centrifugal Compressors: A Strategy for Aerodynamic Design and Analysis, ASME Press, New York.
Oh, H. , Yoon, E. S. , and Chung, M. K. , 1997, “ An Optimum Set of Loss Models for Performance Prediction of Centrifugal Compressors,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 211(4), pp. 331–338. [CrossRef]
Rodgers, C. , 1961, “ Influence of Impeller and Diffuser Characteristics and Matching on Radial Compressor Performance,” SAE Paper No. 610159.
Coppage, J. E. , Dallenbach, F. , Eichenberger, J. P. , Hlvaka, G. E. , Knoerschild, E. M. , and Vanke, N. , 1956, “ Study of Supersonic Radial Compressors for Refrigeration and Pressurisation Systems,” AiResearch Manufacturing Company, Dayton, OH, Report No. WADC TR 55-257. http://contrails.iit.edu/reports/3689
Stern, F. , Wilson, R. V. , Coleman, E. W. , and Paterson, E. G. , 2001, “ Comprehensive Approach to Verification and Validation of CFD Simulations—Part 1: Methodology and Procedures,” ASME J. Fluids Eng., 123(4), pp. 793–802. [CrossRef]
Lüdtke, K. H. , 2004, Process Centrifugal Compressors: Basics, Function, Operation, Design, Application, Springer-Verlag, Berlin. [CrossRef]
Weber, C. R. , and Koronowski, M. E. , 1986, “ Meanline Performance Prediction of Volutes in Centrifugal Compressors,” ASME Paper No. 86-GT-216.
Whitfield, A. , 1974, “ Slip Factor of a Centrifugal Compressor and Its Variation With Flow Rate,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., 188(1), pp. 415–421. [CrossRef]
ANSYS, 2013, “ Release 15.0, BladeGen On-Line Help, Surface Areas,” ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
SAE, 1995, “ Turbocharger Gas Stand Test Code,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, PA, Standard No. J1826_199503. http://standards.sae.org/j1826_199503/
ABB, 2011, “ FS4000 Swirl Flowmeter Data Sheet,” ABB Process Automation, Gloucestershire, UK.
Druck, 2007, “ Druck PMP 4000 Series Specifications,” Druck Limited, Leicester, UK, accessed Oct. 12, 2017, http://mechatec.co.kr/upload/pty3/1192375667_0.pdf
BSI, 1984, “ Specification for Industrial Platinum Resistance Thermometer Sensors,” British Standards Institution, London, Standard No. BS1904. https://shop.bsigroup.com/ProductDetail/?pid=000000000000126916
Baines, N. , Wygant, K. D. , and Dris, A. , 2010, “ The Analysis of Heat Transfer in Automotive Turbochargers,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 132(4), p. 042301. [CrossRef]
Sirakov, B. , and Casey, M. , 2011, “ Evaluation of Heat Transfer Effects on Turbocharger Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2011-45887.
Tamaki, H. , and Yamaguchi, S. , 2007, “ The Experimental Study of Matching Between Centrifugal Compressor Impellers and Vaneless Diffusers for Turbochargers,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-28300.
Tamaki, H. , 2009, “ Experimental Study on Surge Inception in a Centrifugal Compressor,” Int. J. Fluid Mach. Syst., 2(4), pp. 409–417. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/ijfms/2/4/2_4_409/_pdf
Qiu, X. , Japikse, D. , Zhao, J. , and Anderson, M. R. , 2011, “ Analysis and Validation of a Unified Slip Factor Model for Impellers at Design and Off-Design Conditions,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(4), p. 041018. [CrossRef]
Galvas, M. R. , 1973, “Fortran Program for Predicting Off-Design Performance of Centrifugal Compressors,” NASA Lewis Research Centre, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. TN-D-7487. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/19740001912.pdf
Jansen, W. , 1967, “ A Method for Calculating the Flow in a Centrifugal Impeller When Entropy Gradients Are Present,” Royal Society Conference on Internal Aerodynamics (Turbomachinery), Cambridge, UK, July 19–21, pp. 133–146.
Yang, M. , Zheng, X. , Zhang, Y. , Bamba, T. , Tamaki, H. , Huenteler, J. , and Li, Z. , 2010, “ Stability Improvement of High-Pressure-Ratio Turbocharger Compressor by Asymmetric Flow Control: Part I—Non Axisymmetric Flow in Centrifugal Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2010-22581.
Van den Braembussche, R. A. , 2014, “ Centrifugal Compressors Analysis and Design” (VKI Course Note No. 192), von Karman Institute, Sint-Genesius-Rode, Belgium.


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of impeller exhibiting inlet and exit recirculation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Impeller exit velocity triangle for backswept blading in the absence of slip

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Spanwise recirculation at impeller exit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

B2 levels and impact on work input coefficient for 100% speedline of C-4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Impact of B2 on meanline blade angle for C-4 at 100% speed

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Relocation of meanline due to aerodynamic blockage

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Single passage CFD setup [2]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Aerodynamic blockage calculation procedure

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Aerodynamic blockage calculation example

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Overall impact of aerodynamic blockage on impeller exit velocity triangle

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Example of blade angle variation from hub to shroud

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Extracted impeller exit blockage results for all the six geometries

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Comparison of C-2 simulation results and test data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Comparison of C-3 simulation results and test data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Comparison of C-4 simulation results and test data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Comparison of C-5 simulation results and test data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Comparison of C-6 simulation results and test data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Comparison of diabatic and corrected efficiency test data for C-4

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Comparison of impeller exit shroud static pressures for C-3 and C-5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Comparison of C-1 simulation results and test data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison between CFD extracted blockage with that predicted by Eq. (9)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Schematic of QUB turbocharger test facility



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In