Research Papers

Effectiveness Measurements of Additively Manufactured Film Cooling Holes

[+] Author and Article Information
Curtis K. Stimpson

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
3127 Research Drive,
State College, PA 16801
e-mail: curtis.stimpson@psu.edu

Jacob C. Snyder

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
3127 Research Drive,
State College, PA 16801
e-mail: jacob.snyder@psu.edu

Karen A. Thole

Department of Mechanical and
Nuclear Engineering,
The Pennsylvania State University,
136 Reber Building,
University Park, PA 16802
e-mail: kthole@psu.edu

Dominic Mongillo

Pratt & Whitney,
400 Main Street,
East Hartford, CT 06118
e-mail: dominic.mongillo@pw.utc.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 14, 2017; final manuscript received October 3, 2017; published online October 31, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(1), 011009 (Oct 31, 2017) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1163; doi: 10.1115/1.4038182 History: Received September 14, 2017; Revised October 03, 2017

As additive manufacturing (AM) technologies utilizing metal powders continue to mature, the usage of AM parts in gas turbine engines will increase. Current metal AM technologies produce parts with substantial surface roughness that can only be removed from external surfaces and internal surfaces that are accessible for smoothing. Difficulties arise in making smooth the surfaces of small internal channels, which means the augmentation of pressure loss and heat transfer due to roughness must be accounted for in the design. As gas turbine manufacturers have only recently adopted metal AM technologies, much remains to be examined before the full impacts of applying AM to turbine parts are understood. Although discrete film cooling holes have been extensively studied for decades, this objective of this study was to understand how the roughness of film cooling holes made using AM can affect the overall cooling effectiveness. Coupons made from a high temperature nickel alloy with engine-scale film holes were tested in a rig designed to simulate engine relevant conditions. Two different hole sizes and two different build directions were examined at various blowing ratios. Results showed that the effectiveness is dependent on the build direction and the relative size of the hole. It was also discovered that commercially available AM processes could not reliably produce small holes with predictable behavior.

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Fig. 1

Test coupon features and dimensions

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Fig. 2

Coupon orientation during build showing vertical build direction and angled build direction

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Fig. 3

Test rig developed for this study

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Fig. 4

Cross-sectional area of film holes as a function as axial distance along the film hole in the direction of flow

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Fig. 5

Cross section of coupon at one film hole obtained from CT scan on the (a) 1x-A-1H-AM, (b) 1x-V-1H-AM, (c) 1x-A-2H-EDM, (d) 1x-A-2H-AM, (e) 2x-A-1H-AM, and (f) 2x-V-1H-AM coupons showing the as built shape

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Fig. 6

Scanning electron microscope micrographs of film cooling holes with the view aligned to the film hole axis for the (a) 1x-V-1H-AM, (b) 1x-A-2H-EDM, and (c) 2x-A-1H-AM coupons, and with the view aligned normal to the coupon top surface for the (d) 1x-V-1H-AM, (e) 1x-A-2H-EDM, and (f) 2x-A-1H-AM coupons

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Fig. 7

Area-averaged effectiveness versus HLP for (a) 1× baseline coupons and (b) 2× baseline coupons. Dotted and dashed lines of constant internal effectiveness.

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Fig. 8

Flow parameter versus PR for all film holes

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Fig. 9

Contours of area-averaged effectiveness at M = 1.2 for AM holes ((a) and (b)) and EDM holes ((c) and (d))

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Fig. 10

Area-averaged effectiveness of 1× AM and EDM

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Fig. 11

Area-averaged effectiveness versus (a) blowing ratio and (b) PR at Rei = 14,000

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Fig. 12

Area-averaged effectiveness from leading to trailing edge of the hole, ±9D in lateral direction at Rei = 14,000

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Fig. 13

Average centerline effectiveness of three holes for two different blowing ratios at Rei = 14,000

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Fig. 14

Contours of area-averaged effectiveness at Rei = 14,000 for 2× holes at angled build direction ((a) and (b)) and vertical build direction ((c) and (d))




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