0
Research Papers

Quantifying Blowing Ratio for Shaped Cooling Holes

[+] Author and Article Information
D. J. Cerantola

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
Queen's University,
Kingston, ON K7 L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: david.cerantola@queensu.ca

A. M. Birk

Department of Mechanical
and Materials Engineering,
Queen's University,
Kingston, ON K7 L 3N6, Canada
e-mail: birk@me.queensu.ca

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received September 12, 2017; final manuscript received October 22, 2017; published online December 6, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(2), 021008 (Dec 06, 2017) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1159; doi: 10.1115/1.4038277 History: Received September 12, 2017; Revised October 22, 2017

Effusion cooling has been a popular technology integrated into the design of gas turbine combustor liners. A staggering amount of research was completed that quantified performance with respect to operating conditions and cooling hole geometric properties; however, most of these investigations did not address the influence of the manufacturing process on the hole shape. This study completed an adiabatic wall numerical analysis using the realizable k–ϵ turbulence model of a laser-drilled hole that had a nozzled profile with an area ratio of 0.24 and five additional cylindrical, nozzled, diffusing, and fileted holes that yielded the same hole mass flow rate at representative engine conditions. The traditional methods for quantifying blowing ratio yielded the same value for all holes that was not useful considering the substantial differences in film cooling performance. It was proposed to define hole mass flux based on the outlet y-cross-sectional area projected onto the inclination angle plane. This gave blowing ratios that correlated to better and worse cooling performance for the diffusing and nozzled holes, respectively. The diffusing hole delivered the best film cooling due to having the lowest effluent velocity and greatest amount of in-hole turbulent production, which coincided with the worst discharge coefficient.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Bogard, D. G. , and Thole, K. A. , 2006, “ Gas Turbine Film Cooling,” J. Propul. Power, 22(2), pp. 249–270. [CrossRef]
Thurman, D. , Poinsatte, P. , Ameri, A. , Culley, D. , Raghu, S. , and Shyam, V. , 2016, “ Investigation of Spiral and Sweeping Holes,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(9), p. 091007. [CrossRef]
Proietti, A. , Pranzitelli, A. , Andrews, G. E. , Biancolini, M. E. , Ingham, D. B. , and Pourkashanian, M. , 2015, “ Multi-Objective CFD Optimisation of Shaped Hole Film Cooling With Mesh Morphing,” ASME Paper No. GT2015–42249.
Klavetter, S. R. , McClintic, J. W. , Bogard, D. G. , Dees, J. E. , Laskowski, G. M. , and Briggs, R. , 2016, “ The Effect of Rib Turbulators on Film Cooling Effectiveness of Round Compound Angle Holes Fed by an Internal Cross-Flow,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(12), p. 121006. [CrossRef]
Miao, J.-M. , and Wu, C.-Y. , 2006, “ Numerical Approach to Hole Shape Effect on Film Cooling Effectiveness Over Flat Plate Including Internal Impingement Cooling Chamber,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 49(5), pp. 919–938. [CrossRef]
Na, S. , and Shih, T. I. P. , 2007, “ Increasing Adiabatic Film-Cooling Effectiveness by Using an Upstream Ramp,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 129(4), pp. 464–471. [CrossRef]
Fujimoto, S. , 2012, “ Large Eddy Simulation of Film Cooling Flows Using Octree Hexahedral Meshes,” ASME Paper No. GT2012–70090.
Montomoli, F. , Massini, M. , Salvadori, S. , and Martelli, F. , 2012, “ Geometrical Uncertainty and Film Cooling: Fillet Radii,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(1), p. 011019. [CrossRef]
Dong, R. L. , Shi, H. H. , Chen, W. , and Zhang, X. D. , 2013, “ Numerical Simulation of Hole Shapes Effect on Film Cooling Effectiveness and Aerodynamics Loss Over Flat Plate,” Adv. Mater. Res., 614–615, pp. 216–221.
Zhang, C. , Liu, J.-J. , Wang, Z. , and An, B.-T. , 2013, “ The Effects of Biot Number on the Conjugate Film Cooling Effectiveness Under Different Blowing Ratios,” ASME Paper No. GT2013–94041.
Ryan, K. J. , Coletti, F. , Elkins, C. J. , and Eaton, J. K. , 2015, “ Building Block Experiments in Discrete Hole Film Cooling,” ASME Paper No. GT2015–43731.
Leylek, J. H. , and Zerkle, R. D. , 1994, “ Discrete-Jet Film Cooling: A Comparison of Computational Results With Experiments,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116(3), pp. 358–368. [CrossRef]
Yeo, C. Y. , Tam, S. C. , Jana, S. , and Lau, M. W. S. , 1994, “ A Technical Review of the Laser Drilling of Aerospace Materials,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 42(1), pp. 15–49. [CrossRef]
Bandyopadhyay, S. , Sundar, J. K. S. , Sundararajan, G. , and Joshi, S. V. , 2002, “ Geometrical Features and Metallurgical Characteristics of Nd:YAG Laser Drilled Holes in Thick IN718 and Ti–6Al–4V Sheets,” J. Mater. Process. Technol., 127(1), pp. 83–95. [CrossRef]
Voisey, K. , and Clyne, T. , 2004, “ Laser Drilling of Cooling Holes Through Plasma Sprayed Thermal Barrier Coatings,” Surf. Coat. Technol., 176(3), pp. 296–306. [CrossRef]
Sezer, H. K. , and Li, L. , 2009, “ Mechanisms of Acute Angle Laser Drilling Induced Thermal Barrier Coating Delamination,” ASME J. Manuf. Sci. Eng., 131(5), p. 051014. [CrossRef]
McNally, C. A. , Folkes, J. , and Pashby, I. R. , 2004, “ Laser Drilling of Cooling Holes in Aeroengines: State of the Art and Future Challenges,” Mater. Sci. Technol., 20(7), pp. 805–813. [CrossRef]
Harrison, K. L. , and Bogard, D. G. , 2008, “ Comparison of RANS Turbulence Models for Prediction of Film Cooling Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2008–51423.
Menter, F. R. , Kuntz, M. , and Langtry, R. , 2003, “ Ten Years of Industrial Experience With the SST Turbulence Model,” Turbul. Heat Mass Transfer, 4(1), pp. 625–632. http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.460.2814&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Oguntade, H. I. , Andrews, G. E. , Burns, A. , Ingham, D. B. , and Pourkashanian, M. , 2013, “ Improved Trench Film Cooling With Shaped Trench Outlets,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(2), p. 021009. [CrossRef]
Colban, W. F. , Thole, K. A. , and Bogard, D. G. , 2011, “ A Film-Cooling Correlation for Shaped Holes on a Flat-Plate Surface,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Cheng-Xiong, P. , Jing-Zhou, Z. , and Ke-Nan, H. , 2014, “ Numerical Investigation of Partial Blockage Effect on Film Cooling Effectiveness,” Math. Probl. Eng., 2014, p. 167193. [CrossRef]
ANSYS, 2016, “ ANSYS® Release 17.0: ANSYS FLUENT User's Guide,” ANSYS, Inc., Canonsburg, PA.
Shih, T.-H. , Liou, W. W. , Shabbir, A. , Yang, Z. , and Zhu, J. , 1995, “ A New k–ϵ Eddy Viscosity Model for High Reynolds Number Turbulent Flows,” Comput. Fluids, 24(3), pp. 227–238. [CrossRef]
Wolfshtein, M. , 1969, “ The Velocity and Temperature Distribution of One-Dimensional Flow With Turbulence Augmentation and Pressure Gradient,” Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 12(3), pp. 301–318. [CrossRef]
Esgar, J. B. , 1971, “ Turbine Cooling-Its Limitations and Its Future,” NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, Technical Report No. NASA-TM-X-66702 https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19710007910
McClintic, J. W. , Wilkes, E. K. , Bogard, D. G. , Dees, J. E. , Laskowski, G. M. , and Briggs, R. , 2015, “ Near-Hole Thermal Field Measurements for Round Compound Angle Film Cooling Holes Fed by Cross-Flow,” ASME Paper No. GT2015–43949.
Eça, L. , and Hoekstra, M. , 2014, “ A Procedure for the Estimation of the Numerical Uncertainty of CFD Calculations Based on Grid Refinement Studies,” J. Comput. Phys., 262, pp. 104–130. [CrossRef]
Haven, B. A. , and Kurosaka, M. , 1997, “ Kidney and Anti-Kidney Vortices in Crossflow Jets,” J. Fluid Mech., 352, pp. 27–64. [CrossRef]
Bohn, D. , and Krewinkel, R. , 2009, “ Conjugate Simulation of the Effects of Oxide Formation in Effusion Cooling Holes on Cooling Effectiveness,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59081.
Tyagi, M. , and Acharya, S. , 2003, “ Large Eddy Simulation of Film Cooling Flow From an Inclined Cylindrical Jet,” ASME J. Turbomach., 125(4), pp. 734–742. [CrossRef]
Bogard, D. G. , 2006, “ Airfoil Film Cooling,” The Gas Turbine Handbook, Vol. 4, National Energy Technology Laboratory, Morgantown, WV, pp. 309–321.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Boundary condition schematic

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Hole geometry schematics. Coolant flow enters at hole bottom: (a) cylindrical, (b) cylindrical with filet, (c) conical nozzle, (d) elliptical nozzle, (e) as-drilled hole, and (f) conical diffuser.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Hole area profiles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

z = 0 mesh plane through cylindrical hole

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Cylindrical hole grid convergence study with adiabatic walls and Rkϵ. Symbols: solid—geometrically similar for grid study, hollow—ten rows in inflation layer, gray-filled—tetra–hex transition moved one-dimensional downstream, black outer—unstructured, lines—polynomial curve fits. Extrapolated relative errors shown at Δx = 0.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Grid convergence study wall shear distributions withRkϵ. Error bar shows the chosen grid uncertainty at x = 6.33Deq: (a) hot side centerline x-wall shear and (b) hole TE centerline z-wall shear.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Cylindrical hole pressure contours, streamlines, and uniform length vector tangents with Rkϵ. The inset Tu contours were calculated using Uc.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Cylindrical hole axial velocity (in y′) contours on z = 0 plane with Rkϵ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Film cooling effectiveness versus blowing ratio using Rkϵ. Lines drawn to assist in identifying similar symbols.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Hole performance using Rkϵ. Symbols denote the hole shape. Lines drawn to assist in identifying symbols of the same coefficient: (a) loss coefficients and (b) separation lengths.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

z = 0 axial velocity profiles with Rkϵ: (a) y′=4.5Deq and (b) y = 0

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Axial (lines) and azimuthal (filled) vorticity contours at y′=4.5Deq using Rkϵ (looking downstream). Positive counterclockwise.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

x-vorticity and turbulence intensity contours at x = 6.33Deq using Rkϵ. Solid lines with symbols Tu=2/3k/Uh. Dashed line = 0.9Th.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Hot wall film cooling effectiveness using Rkϵ. Black lines with symbols show τx/qj.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Film cooling effectiveness with Rkϵ. Error bars show uncertainties for the cylindrical hole using the selected grid. (a) Centerline and (b) laterally averaged.

Tables

Errata

Discussions

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In