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Research Papers

Periodic Unsteady Tip Clearance Vortex Development in a Low-Speed Axial Research Compressor at Different Tip Clearances

[+] Author and Article Information
Martin Lange

Chair of Turbomachinery and Flight Propulsion,
Institute of Fluid Mechanics,
Technische Universität Dresden,
Dresden 01062, Germany
e-mail: Martin.Lange@tu-dresden.de

Matthias Rolfes, Ronald Mailach

Chair of Turbomachinery and Flight Propulsion,
Institute of Fluid Mechanics,
Technische Universität Dresden,
Dresden 01062, Germany

Henner Schrapp

Rolls-Royce Deutschland Ltd & CoKG,
Compressor Aerodynamics,
Blankenfelde-Mahlow (OT Dahlewitz) 15827, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 2, 2017; final manuscript received October 26, 2017; published online December 20, 2017. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(3), 031005 (Dec 20, 2017) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1181; doi: 10.1115/1.4038319 History: Received October 02, 2017; Revised October 26, 2017

Since the early work on axial compressors, the penalties due to radial clearances between blades and side walls are known and are an ongoing focus of research work. The periodic unsteadiness of the tip clearance vortex (TCV), due to its interaction with the stator wakes, has only rarely been addressed in research papers so far. The current work presents experimental and numerical results from a four-stage low-speed research compressor (LSRC) modeling a state-of-the-art compressor design. Time-resolved experimental measurements have been carried out at three different rotor tip clearances (gap to tip chord: 1.5%, 2.2%, 3.7%) to cover the third rotor's casing static pressure and exit flow field. These results are compared with either steady simulations using different turbulence models or harmonic Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) calculations to discuss the periodical unsteady TCV development at different clearance heights. The prediction of the local tip leakage flow is clearly improved by the explicit algebraic Reynolds stress model (EARSM) turbulence model compared to the standard shear stress transport (SST) model. The harmonic RANS calculations (using the SST model) improve the prediction of time-averaged pressure rise and are used to analyze the rotor stator interaction in detail. The interaction of the rotor tip flow field with the passing stator wakes causes a segmentation of the TCV and results in a sinusoidal variation in blockage downstream the rotor row.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Cross section of the compressor and definition of MPs

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Fig. 2

Sketch of the one-hole cylindrical probe (a) and the arrangement of pressure transducers over rotor tip (b)

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Fig. 3

Compressor characteristic at design speed

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Fig. 4

Reduction of efficiency and pressure ratio versus clearance ratio at design speed

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Fig. 5

Comparison of static pressure rise at the casing above rotor 3 from experiment and numerical simulations at design point (ξ = 1.00)

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Fig. 6

Time-dependent axial velocity in the rotor 3 passage at DP (CFD-NLH, ξ = 1.00, r* = 97.8%, s/l = 2.2%); profile pressure distribution near blade tip and tip leakage mass flow distribution

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Fig. 7

Shape of the stator 2 wake close to the rotor 3 tip leading edge (CFD-NLH, ξ = 1.00) and sketch of the velocity triangle

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Fig. 8

Tip leakage mass flow of one rotor 3 blade for various stator positions and three clearance levels at DP (CFD-NLH, ξ = 1.00)

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Fig. 9

Measured time-dependent axial velocity in the axial gapdownstream rotor 3 at DP (EXP, ξ = 1.00, MP8, s/l = 2.2%)

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Fig. 10

Numerical prediction of time-dependent axial velocity in the axial gap downstream rotor 3 at DP (CFD-NLH, ξ = 1.00, MP8, s/l = 2.2%)

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Fig. 11

Blockage area of one rotor 3 blade passage for various stator positions and three clearance levels at DP in MP8 (CFD-NLH, ξ = 1.00)

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