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Research Papers

Full-Annulus Simulation of Nonsynchronous Blade Vibration Excitation of an Axial Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Daniel Espinal

Pratt & Whitney,
East Hartford, CT 06118

Hong-Sik Im

Doosan ATS America,
11360 Jog Rd,
Palm Beach Gardens, FL 33418

Ge-Cheng Zha

Professor
Department of Mechanical and
Aerospace Engineering,
University of Miami,
Coral Gables, FL 33124
e-mail: gzha@miami.edu

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received September 26, 2016; final manuscript received October 27, 2017; published online December 27, 2017. Assoc. Editor: Li He.

J. Turbomach 140(3), 031008 (Dec 27, 2017) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1261; doi: 10.1115/1.4038337 History: Received September 26, 2016; Revised October 27, 2017

A high speed 1–1/2 axial compressor stage is simulated in this paper using an unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) solver for a full-annulus configuration to capture its nonsynchronous vibration (NSV) flow excitation with rigid blades. A third-order weighted essentially nonoscillatory scheme for the inviscid flux and a second-order central differencing for the viscous terms are used to resolve nonlinear unsteady fluid flows. A fully conservative rotor/stator sliding boundary condition (BC) is employed with multiple-processor capability for rotor/stator sliding interface that accurately captures unsteady wake propagation between the rotor and stator blades while conserving fluxes across the rotor/stator interfaces. The predicted dominant frequencies using the blade tip response signals are not harmonic to the engine order, which is the NSV excitation. The simulation is based on a rotor blade with a 1.1% tip-chord clearance. Comparison with the previous 1/7 annulus simulations show that the time-shifted phase-lag BCs used in the 1/7 annulus are accurate. For most of the blades, the NSV excitation frequency is 6.2% lower than the measurement in the rig test, although some blades displayed slightly different NSV excitation frequencies. The simulation confirms that the NSV is a full annulus phenomenon. The instability of the circumferential traveling vortices in the vicinity of the rotor tip due to the strong interaction of incoming flow is the main cause of the NSV excitation. This instability is present in all blades of the rotor annulus. For circumferentially averaged parameters like total pressure ratio, NSV is observed to have an effect on the radial profile, particularly at radial locations above 70% span. A design with a lower loading of the upper blade span and a higher loading of the midblade spans is recommended to mitigate or remove NSV.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Strain gage response (long) and casing unsteady pressure measurements (short) of the first-stage rotor blades of the high-speed compressor showing separated flow vibration (SFV) and NSV from Ref. [2]

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Fig. 2

Instantaneous circumferential distribution of normalized mass flux ρU at 50% span of full-annulus fully conservative sliding BC at rotor/stator interface

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Fig. 3

Full annulus mesh for NSV simulation and close-up views of blade surface mesh, interface H-mesh blocks, rotor tip gap O-mesh, and 50% span IGV wake mesh

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Fig. 4

Numerical probes of the rotor blade on suction surface; pressure surface probe distribution is the same

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Fig. 6

Total pressure ratio of IGV-to-Stator versus mass flow rate at the rotor exit

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Fig. 7

The 1–1/2 Stage wake patterns shown by entropy increase contours at 50% span at 3.25 and 3.5 revolutions and zoom-in wakes at IGV–rotor interface (bottom-left) and rotor–stator interface (bottom-right)

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Fig. 8

Streamlines colored by axial velocity showing the vortex structure predicted in rotor stage above 77% span. Black color shows flow going downstream, and light color shows backflow going upstream toward IGV.

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Fig. 9

Zoom-in view of the circumferentially traveling vortices near the tip region of rotor blades shown by streamlines colored by reverse axial velocity with vortex core shown

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Fig. 10

Instantaneous vortex core structure predicted at T = 3.5 rev with all blades showing presence of vortical flow showing a circumferential vortex tube

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Fig. 11

Side and top view of a circumferentially traveling vortex with vortex core almost perpendicular to suction surface and propagation direction parallel but opposite to rotation direction

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Fig. 12

Instantaneous vortex trajectories in tip region every 1/35th of a revolution colored by the normalized static pressure

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Fig. 13

Predicted average NSV frequencies for full annulus (with standard deviation band) and 1/7th annulus simulations (a) at 77% span near LE and (b) zoom-in zone with abscissa in engine order units to show peak frequency of 2439 Hz as NSV

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Fig. 14

Pressure signal for sample blade of full-annulus (blade 6) at 77% span near LE with zoom-in of a signal period with a frequency of approximately 2400 Hz validating FFT results

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Fig. 15

Average frequency envelope and standard deviation (σ) for LE probes showing strong frequency response for NSV frequency of 2439 Hz

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Fig. 16

Sample blade suction surface with contours of peak frequencies from FFT at each probe location (left) and corresponding peak amplitude (right) showing region of NSV frequency dominance between LE and 30% chord location. The 77% span and 25% chord locations are shown for reference (see Fig. 4).

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Fig. 17

Radial profile of total pressure ratio unsteady average measured for IGV inlet to rotor outlet. Bars indicate range of values in the instantaneous record starting at 1.5 revolutions.

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Fig. 18

Frequency map for circumferentially averaged total pressure ratio instantaneous response showing strong peak at NSV frequency of 2439 Hz for radial locations near or above 77% span

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Fig. 19

Rotor/stator interface exchange algorithm between blocks and between cells

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