In this study, PADRAM was also used for generating new blade designs by perturbing five spanwise airfoil sections—at 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% span—and then radially interpolating (linearly) the sections to generate a new blade geometry. Individual sections were perturbed using the five degrees-of-freedom (5DOFs) illustrated in Fig. 2. These DOFs are dihedral (axial movement), sweep (tangential displacement), leading edge recambering, trailing edge recambering, and skew (rotation about the centroidal axis). Thus, in total, the design space consisted of 25 design variables (five spanwise stations with 5DOFs). It is important to note that these DOFs do not alter the thickness of the blade, but do change inlet angles, exit angles, and the camberline distributions. Such a design space has been previously used for design optimization studies [12]. Choices for the upper and lower bounds on each variable—indicated by the vectors $xU$ and $xL$, respectively—were determined such that (a) a subset of the design space could approximately emulate the effect of manufacturing variations on the blade and (b) a portion of the design space was suitable for design optimization. The resulting design envelope for the blade inlet and blade outlet angles, along with the camberline distributions for 75% and 95% span, is shown in Fig. 3.