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Research Papers

Stability Improvement of a Turbocharger Centrifugal Compressor by a Nonaxisymmetric Vaned Diffuser

[+] Author and Article Information
Xinqian Zheng

Turbomachinery Laboratory,
State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China
e-mail: zhengxq@tsinghua.edu.cn

Zhenzhong Sun

Turbomachinery Laboratory,
State Key Laboratory of Automotive
Safety and Energy,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 100084, China

Tomoki Kawakubo, Hideaki Tamaki

Corporate Research & Development,
IHI Corporation,
Yokohama 235-8501, Japan

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received May 6, 2016; final manuscript received December 2, 2017; published online February 13, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nicole L. Key.

J. Turbomach 140(4), 041007 (Feb 13, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: TURBO-16-1101; doi: 10.1115/1.4038875 History: Received May 06, 2016; Revised December 02, 2017

The nonuniformity of the flow field induced by a nonaxisymmetric volute significantly degrades the stability of a turbocharger centrifugal compressor. In this paper, a nonaxisymmetric vaned diffuser is investigated as a nonaxisymmetric flow control method using both three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and experiment. The numerical study first focuses on the relationship between the flow field and the static pressure distortion, and the steady CFD results indicate that the positive static pressure gradient in the rotating direction facilitates flow separation in the vaned diffuser and induces a nonuniform flow field. A nonaxisymmetric flow control method with variable stagger and solidity of the vaned diffuser is developed to suppress the flow separation, and the guideline of the method suggests narrowing flow passages where the flow separates or closing diffuser vanes upstream of flow separations. Steady CFD also presents the flow field of the investigated turbocharger centrifugal compressor with volute, and flow separation is found in the flow passages near the volute tongue. Under the guidance of the nonaxisymmetric flow control method, several nonaxisymmetric vaned diffusers are designed to make the flow field uniform, which are believed to be beneficial for compressor stability. Finally, an experiment is carried out to validate the positive effects of the nonaxisymmetric vaned diffuser for stability improvement. The test data show that Non-AxisVD (with a nonaxisymmetric vaned diffuser) extends the stable flow range (SFR) of the compressor by 26% compared with the AxisVD (with an axisymmetric vaned diffuser), at the cost of acceptable decreases in the maximum total pressure ratio and peak efficiency.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

The finished mesh of the volute (top) and single passage mesh of the impeller and the vaned diffuser (bottom)

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Fig. 2

Schematic of the two simulation models

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Fig. 3

Details of simulation models and flow passages

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Fig. 4

The y+ distribution on all of the solid walls

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Fig. 5

Schematic of measurement locations in the compressor “Radiver” [22,25]

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Fig. 6

Comparison of relative velocity at 2M′ at the operating point where m/mchoke = 83%

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Fig. 7

Comparison of absolute velocity at 4M at the operating point where m/mchoke = 83%

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Fig. 8

Relationship between flow separation and pressure gradient

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Fig. 9

The influence of solidity on the flow field of the vaned diffuser

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Fig. 10

The influence of stagger on the flow field of the vaned diffuser

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Fig. 11

Performance of the AxisVD at design speed

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Fig. 12

Static pressure distribution along the circumferential direction at diffuser outlet (volute inlet)

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Fig. 13

Mach number distribution near surge point and velocity vector distribution at diffuser leading edge (90% span)

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Fig. 14

Information on selected nonaxisymmetric vaned diffuser design schemes

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Fig. 15

Comparison of Mach number distributions between the AxisVD and the selected non-axisymmetric design schemes (90% span)

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Fig. 16

Solidity and stagger distribution at different circumferential positions of Non-AxisVD

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Fig. 17

Normalized mass flow rate (top) and absolute Mach number (bottom) at each flow passage

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Fig. 18

Flow field comparison at leading edge of passage 8 between the AxisVD and the Non-AxisVD

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Fig. 19

Schematic of experimental test rig (left) and experimental centrifugal compressor (right)

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Fig. 20

Experimental performance comparison between the AxisVD and the Non-AxisVD

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