Research Papers

Measurements of Radial Vortices, Spill Forward, and Vortex Breakdown in a Transonic Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Christoph Brandstetter

Institute of Gas Turbines and Aerospace
Propulsion Technische,
Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Street 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany
e-mails: christoph.brandstetter@ec-lyon.fr;

Maximilian Jüngst, Heinz-Peter Schiffer

Institute of Gas Turbines and Aerospace
Propulsion Technische,
Universität Darmstadt,
Otto-Berndt-Street 2,
Darmstadt 64287, Germany

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received November 21, 2017; final manuscript received November 28, 2017; published online April 18, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(6), 061004 (Apr 18, 2018) (14 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1218; doi: 10.1115/1.4039053 History: Received November 21, 2017; Revised November 28, 2017

The phenomena prior to rotating stall were investigated in a high-speed compressor test rig using optical and pneumatic measurement techniques. A number of throttling procedures were performed at transonic and subsonic speedlines with the aim to detect the unsteady effects initiating rotating stall or large amplitude blade vibrations. At transonic speed, radial vortices traveling around the circumference were detected in the upstream part of the rotor using phase-locked particle-image-velocimetry (PIV) measurements above 92% span and unsteady wall pressure measurements. When these radial vortices impinge on a blade leading edge (LE), they cause a forward spill of fluid around the LE. The effects are accompanied by a large-scale vortex breakdown in the blade passage leading to immense blockage in the endwall region. At subsonic speeds, the observed flow phenomena are similar but differ in intensity and structure. During the throttling procedure, blade vibration amplitudes were monitored using strain gauges (SG) and blade tip timing instrumentation. Nonsynchronous blade vibrations in the first torsional eigenmode were measured as the rotor approached stall. Using the different types of instrumentation, it was possible to align the aerodynamic flow features with blade vibration levels. The results show a clear correlation between the occurrence of radial vortices and blade vibrations.

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Fig. 3

Raw images at NS condition with and without intake seeding

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Fig. 2

PIV lightsheet placement in compressor rotor

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Fig. 1

Darmstadt transonic compressor test rig

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Fig. 4

Calculation of wave propagation velocity

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Fig. 11

Spill forward; axial velocity around leading edge

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Fig. 5

Transonic and subsonic compressor characteristic

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Fig. 6

Steady flow structure at NS condition for transonic and subsonic speedline

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Fig. 7

Blockage development due to vortex breakdown; transonic speedline

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Fig. 8

Radial vortex propagation; no intake seeding

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Fig. 9

Location of radial vortices in several frames; regular intake seeding

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Fig. 10

Velocity field relative to vortex propagation; circumferential velocity average around vortex center

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Fig. 12

Radial vortex detection in wall pressure recording

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Fig. 13

Radial vortex occurrence in transient wall pressure signal; transonic speedline

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Fig. 14

Group velocity of aerodynamic disturbance; transonic speedline

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Fig. 15

Group velocity of aerodynamic disturbance; subsonic speedline

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Fig. 16

Campbell diagrams of wall pressure and strain gauge signal at transonic speedline

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Fig. 19

Local blade deflections versus axial velocity in tip region

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Fig. 20

Vortex propagation and structure interaction; transonic speedline

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Fig. 17

Nonlinear strain gauge signal

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Fig. 18

Radial vortex position and amplitude of dominant aerodynamic disturbance frequency; transonic speedline




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