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Research Papers

EBFOG: Deposition, Erosion, and Detachment on High-Pressure Turbine Vanes

[+] Author and Article Information
Nicola Casari

University of Ferrara,
Via Saragat, 1,
Ferrara (IT) 44122, Italy
e-mails: nicola.casari@unife.it;
nicola.casari15@imperial.ac.uk

Michele Pinelli, Alessio Suman

University of Ferrara,
Via Saragat, 1,
Ferrara (IT) 44122, Italy

Luca di Mare

Osney Thermo-Fluids Laboratory,
Department of Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES,
Oxfordshire, UK

Francesco Montomoli

Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 11, 2017; final manuscript received November 2, 2017; published online April 18, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(6), 061001 (Apr 18, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1112; doi: 10.1115/1.4039181 History: Received August 11, 2017; Revised November 02, 2017

Fouling and erosion are two pressing problems that severely affect gas turbine performance and life. When aircraft fly through a volcanic ash cloud, the two phenomena occur simultaneously in the cold as well as in the hot section of the engine. In the high-pressure turbine (HPT), in particular, particles soften or melt due to the high gas temperatures and stick to the wet surfaces. The throat area, and hence the capacity, of the HPT is modified by these phenomena, affecting the engine stability and possibly forcing engine shutdown. This work presents a model for deposition and erosion in gas turbines and its implementation in a three-dimensional Navier–Stokes solver. Both deposition and erosion are taken into account, together with deposit detachment due to changed flow conditions. The model is based on a statistical description of the behavior of softened particles. The particles can stick to the surface or can bounce away, eroding the material. The sticking prediction relies on the authors' Energy Based FOulinG (EBFOG) model. The impinging particles which do not stick to the surface are responsible for the removal of material. The model is demonstrated on a HPT vane. The airfoil shape evolution over the exposure time as a consequence of the impinging particles has been carefully monitored. The variation of the flow field as a consequence of the geometrical changes is reported as an important piece of on-board information for the flight crew.

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Figures

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Fig. 2

Schlieren visualization from Ref. [23] and results of the validating simulation: (a) schlieren visualization from Ref. [23] and (b) numerical results for validation

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Fig. 1

Outline of the procedure, nozzle modifications not in scale

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Fig. 3

Evolution of the deposit during the first second of exposure. smax,side stands for the maximum curvilinear coordinate on the side under investigation.

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Fig. 9

Overall of the blade and details of leading edge, suction side, and trailing edge. Displacement is magnificated of 200 times.

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Fig. 4

Accretion of the trailing edge area

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Fig. 5

Fouled geometry from Ref. [34]: particular of the thin deposit in the trailing edge area

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Fig. 6

Displacement of the shock wave: depicted with a line the initial position: (a) original position of the shock and (b) displacement of the shock after 1 s of exposure

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Fig. 7

Isentropic Mach distribution along the suction side of the vane at different exposure time

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Fig. 8

Coefficient of pressure in the two cases: peak represents the wake

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