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Research Papers

Fan Performance Scaling With Inlet Distortions

[+] Author and Article Information
J. J. Defoe

Turbomachinery and Unsteady Flows
Research Group,
Department of Mechanical, Automotive, and
Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada
e-mail: jdefoe@uwindsor.ca

M. Etemadi

Turbomachinery and Unsteady Flows
Research Group,
Department of Mechanical, Automotive, and
Materials Engineering,
University of Windsor,
Windsor, ON N9B 3P4, Canada

D. K. Hall

Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
Cambridge, MA 02139

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received February 1, 2018; final manuscript received February 18, 2018; published online June 22, 2018. Edited by David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 140(7), 071009 (Jun 22, 2018) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1016; doi: 10.1115/1.4039433 History: Received February 01, 2018; Revised February 18, 2018

Applications such as boundary-layer-ingesting (BLI) fans and compressors in turboprop engines require continuous operation with distorted inflow. A low-speed axial fan with incompressible flow is studied in this paper. The objectives are to (1) identify the physical mechanisms which govern the fan response to inflow distortions and (2) determine how fan performance scales as the type and severity of inlet distortion varies at the design flow coefficient. A distributed source term approach to modeling the rotor and stator blade rows is used in numerical simulations in this paper. The model does not include viscous losses so that changes in diffusion factor are the primary focus. Distortions in stagnation pressure and temperature as well as swirl are considered. The key findings are that unless sharp pitchwise gradients in the diffusion response, strong radial flows, or very large distortion magnitudes are present, the response of the blade rows for strong distortions can be predicted by scaling up the response to a weaker distortion. In addition, the response to distortions which are composed of nonuniformities in several inlet quantities can be predicted by summing up the responses to the constituent distortions.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Meridional view of computational domain, showing locations of measurement planes, blade rows, and inflow/outflow boundaries

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Fig. 2

Schematic illustration of vertically stratified inlet distortions of stagnation pressure

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Fig. 3

Upstream propeller geometry relative to fan duct, showing ht, pt, and swirl (α′) distributions

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Fig. 4

Calculated rotor inlet relative flow angle distortion (a), stagnation enthalpy rise (b), streamtube contraction (c), anddiffusion factor (d), for offset radially stratified inlet stagnation pressure distortion ((dpt/dr′)(Rin/ρ¯1MUmid2)=1.85, ΔR/Rin=0.75)

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Fig. 5

Calculated stage exit stagnation temperature distribution (a), rotor stagnation pressure rise distortion (b), de Haller number distortion (c), and diffusion factor distortion (d), for radially stratified inlet stagnation temperature distortion ((dht/dr′)(Rin/Umid2)=18.3, (ΔR/Rin)=0.50)

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Fig. 6

Calculated rotor relative swirl angle at station 1 (a) and station 2 (b), rotor stagnation enthalpy rise distortion (c), streamtube contraction distortion (d), de Haller number distortion (e), and diffusion factor distortion (f), for radially stratified inlet swirl distortion (α′=15 deg co-swirl, ΔR/Rin=0.75)

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Fig. 7

Calculated rotor exit axial velocity distortion ((a), (c), (e)) and stator diffusion factor distortion ((b), (d), (f)) for radially stratified inlet stagnation pressure distortion ((a) and (b)), stagnation temperature distortion ((c) and (d)) and swirl distortion ((e) and (f))

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Fig. 8

Effect of varying axial velocity on stator incidence

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Fig. 9

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for vertically stratified stagnation pressure distortion with Δpt/ρ¯1MUmid2=0.094

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Fig. 10

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for vertically stratified stagnation pressure distortion with δ/2Rin=0.50

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Fig. 11

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for radially stratified distortion with (dht/dr′)(Rin/Umid2)=(dpt/dr′)(Rin/ρ¯1MUmid2)=1.85

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Fig. 12

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for radially stratified distortion of pt and ht with ΔR/Rin=0.75

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Fig. 13

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for radially stratified co-swirl distortion with ΔR/Rin=0.75

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Fig. 14

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for radially stratified counter-swirl distortion with ΔR/Rin=0.75

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Fig. 15

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for radially stratified co-swirl and stagnation enthalpy/pressure distortion with ΔR/Rin=0.75

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Fig. 16

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for radially stratified co-swirl, stagnation enthalpy/pressure, and combined distortions with ΔR/Rin=0.75 and 5.3 deg co-swirl

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Fig. 17

Circumferential variation in rotor and stator diffusion factors at 10%, 50%, and 90% span for radially stratified counter-swirl, stagnation enthalpy/pressure, and combined distortions with ΔR/Rin=0.75 and 5.3 deg counter-swirl

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