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Research Papers

Generic Properties of Flows in Low-Speed Axial Fans Operating at Load-Controlled Windmill

[+] Author and Article Information
Aurélie Ortolan

Aerodynamic Department,
SAFRAN Ventilation Systems,
Blagnac 31700, France;
Department of Aerodynamics,
Energetics and Propulsion,
Université de Toulouse ISAE-SUPAERO,
Toulouse 31400, France
e-mail: aurelie.ortolan@isae.fr

Suk-Kee Courty-Audren, Massyl Lagha, Nicolas Binder, Xavier Carbonneau

Department of Aerodynamics,
Energetics and Propulsion,
Université de Toulouse ISAE-SUPAERO,
Toulouse 31400, France

Florent Challas

Aerodynamic Department,
SAFRAN Ventilation Systems,
Blagnac 31700, France

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received January 12, 2018; final manuscript received June 26, 2018; published online July 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Li He.

J. Turbomach 140(8), 081002 (Jul 24, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1006; doi: 10.1115/1.4040678 History: Received January 12, 2018; Revised June 26, 2018

This paper aims at underlining the existence of some generic properties of windmilling flows, partially spread in the literature but never clearly stated. Two kinds of axial machines are investigated from compressor mode to highly loaded windmill: a conventional fan with poor turbine performance and an optimized fan able to reach high efficiencies in both compressor and windmilling operations. Both simulations and experiments are used to perform the analysis. Three particular behaviors were identified as typical of fans operating at windmill: the inverse stacking of the speed lines visible in (Π, Qm) turbine maps, the appearance of a slope change on the loading-to-flow coefficient diagram at windmill, and a threshold effect occurring at highly loaded windmill.

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References

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Configuration in flight conditions

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Fig. 2

Velocity diagrams in compressor mode, freewindmill, and load-controlled windmill for a conventional axial fan

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Fig. 3

Illustration of the functioning modes along the loading-to-reduced flow coefficient diagram

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Fig. 4

Illustration of the DAEP windmilling test facility of ISAE-SUPAERO (WILLOW)

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Fig. 5

95% confidence intervals for five-hole probe measurements at rotor outlet in compressor mode, freewindmill, and load-controlled windmill [experimental]

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Fig. 6

Mesh visualizations

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Fig. 7

Classical turbine maps for the conventional fan (left) and the dual machine (right) [experimental]

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Fig. 8

Evolution of the total enthalpy variation with the blade speed for a given axial velocity, from Ref. [9] [analytical]

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Fig. 9

Evolution of the total enthalpy variation with the blade speed for a given axial velocity, for the conventional fan [experimental]

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Fig. 10

Evolution of the total enthalpy variation with the blade speed for a given axial velocity, for the dual machine [experimental]

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Fig. 11

Evolution of the total enthalpy variation with the blade speed for a given axial velocity, for a generic axial turbine map from Proosis [numerical]

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Fig. 12

Rotor work evolution for the conventional fan (left) and the dual machine (right) [experimental]

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Fig. 13

Rotor losses evolution for the conventional fan (left) and the dual machine (right) [experimental]

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Fig. 14

Stator losses evolution for the conventional fan (left) and the dual machine (right) [experimental]

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Fig. 15

Loading-to-reduced flow coefficient diagram for the conventional fan

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Fig. 16

Loading-to-reduced flow coefficient diagram for the dual machine

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Fig. 17

Beginning of the rotor separation topology near the slope change point for the conventional fan: viscous stress lines plotted on the blade skin with streamlines colored by the absolute radial velocity [steady-state mixing-plane simulation]

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Fig. 18

Beginning of the rotor separation topology near the slope change point for the dual machine: viscous stress lines plotted on the blade skin with streamlines colored by the absolute radial velocity [steady-state mixing-plane simulation]

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Fig. 19

Loading-to-reduced flow coefficient diagram for the conventional fan [experimental/analytical]

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Fig. 20

Loading-to-reduced flow coefficient diagram for the dual machine [experimental/analytical]

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