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Research Papers

Past Developments and Current Advancements in Unsteady Pressure Measurements in Turbomachines

[+] Author and Article Information
Jan Lepicovsky

Institute of Thermomechanics,
Czech Academy of Sciences,
Dolejskova 1402/5,
Praha 18200, Czech Republic
e-mail: jandrsc@gmail.com

David Simurda

Institute of Thermomechanics of the Czech
Academy of Sciences,
Dolejskova 1402/5,
Praha 18200, Czech Republic
e-mail: simurda@it.cas.cz

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 10, 2017; final manuscript received May 2, 2018; published online October 10, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Nicole L. Key.

J. Turbomach 140(11), 111005 (Oct 10, 2018) (17 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1083; doi: 10.1115/1.4040419 History: Received July 10, 2017; Revised May 02, 2018

The aim of this paper is to review, summarize, and record long-term experience with development and application of aerodynamic probes with built-in miniature pressure transducers for unsteady pressure measurement and industrial research in turbomachine components. The focus of the first half of the paper is on the work performed at VZLU Prague, Czech Republic (Secs. 3–8). The latest development in unsteady pressure measurement techniques and data reduction methodology suitable for future research in highly loaded, high-speed turbine engine components performed at NASA GRC Cleveland, OH, is reported in Secs. 8–15 of this paper. Excellent reviews of similar activities at ETH Zürich, Switzerland by Kupferschmied, et al. (2000, “Time-Resolved Flow Measurements With Fast-Response Aerodynamic Probes in Turbomachines,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 11(7), pp. 1036–1054) and at VKI Rhode-Sain-Genèse, Belgium by Sieverding, et al. (2000, “Measurement Techniques for Unsteady Flows in Turbomachines,” Exp. Fluids, 28(4), pp. 285–321) were already reported and are acknowledged here. A short list of reported accomplishments achieved by other researchers at various laboratories is also reported for completeness. The authors apologize to those whose contributions are not reported here. It is just an unfortunate oversight, not an intentional omission.

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References

Kupferschmied, P. , Koppel, P. , Gizzi, W. , Roduner, C. , and Gyarmathy, G. , 2000, “ Time-Resolved Flow Measurements With Fast-Response Aerodynamic Probes in Turbo-Machines,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 11(7), pp. 1036–1054. [CrossRef]
Sieverding, C. H. , Arts, T. , Denos, R. , and Brouckaert, J. F. , 2000, “ Measurement Techniques for Unsteady Flows in Turbo-Machines,” Exp. Fluids, 28(4), pp. 285–321. [CrossRef]
Samojlovic, G. S. , Majorskij, E. V. , Neruda, J. , and Stekolshikov, E. V. , 1959, “ Maloin. tenzo. zondy Dla Isledonanije Neustan. procesov Turbo,” Teploenergetika, 1(2), pp. 59–62 (in Russian).
Dejc, M. E. , 1967, Technicka Dynamika Plynu, SNTL, Prague, Czechoslovakia (Czech translation from Russian).
Gorodeckij, O. A. , 1967, “ Zond Dla Isled. Nestac, Proc. Centro. komp,” Kompres. i Cholod. masinostr., 2(4), pp. 8–11 (in Russian).
Neruda, J. , and Lepicovsky, J. , 1975, “ Priprava Merení Casovych Prubehu Okamz. Hodnot Param. Proudeni Za Stupnem Rad. Kompresoru,” VZLU Prague, Zprava, Z-2234/75 (in Czech).
Kulite-Bytrex , 1960, “ New Semiconductor Strain Gages,” Bulletin K-102A, Kulite-Bytrex, Newton, MA.
Kerrebrock, J. L. , Epstein, A. H. , Haines, D. M. , and Thompkins, W. T. , 1974, “ The M.I.T. Blowdown Compressor Facility,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 96(4), pp. 394–405. [CrossRef]
Pospisil, K. , 1975, “ Si Tlakova Cidla,” VUST Prague, Zprava TM, 510/01 (in Czech).
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Cook, S. C. P. , 1989, “ The Development of a High Response Aerodynamic Wedge Probe,” Paper No. ISABE 89-7118.
Bubeck, H. , and Wachter, J. , 1987, “ Development and Application of a High Frequency Wedge Probe,” ASME Paper No. 87-GT-216.
Ainsworth, R. W. , Allen, J. L. , and Batt, J. J. M. , 1995, “ The Development of Fast Response Aerodynamics Probes for Flow Measurement in Turbomachinery,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117(4), pp. 625–634. [CrossRef]
Kupferschmie, P. , 1998, “ Zur Methodik zeitaufgelöster Messungen MIT Strömungssonden in Verdichtern und Turbinen,” Ph.D. thesis, ETH Zurich, Switzerland (in German).
Brouckaert, J. F. , 2007, “ Fast Response Aerodynamics Probes for Measurements in Turbomachines,” Proc. IMechE, 221(6), pp. 803–813.
Grossweiler, C. R. , Kupferschmied, P. , and Gyarmathy, G. , 1994, “ On Fast-Response Probes—Part 1: Technology, Caliberation and Application to Turbomachinery,” ASME Paper No. 94-GT-26.
Courtiade, N. , 2012, “ Experimental Analysis of the Unsteady Flow and Instabilities in a High-Speed Multistage Compressor,” Doctoral dissertation, Ecole Centrale de Lyon, Lyon, France.
Lepicovsky, J. , and Braunscheidel, E. P. , 2006, “ Measurement of Flow Pattern Within a Rotating Stall Cell in an Axial Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT-2006-91209. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20060046702.pdf
Lepicovsky, J. , and Simurda, D. , 2016, “ Measurement of Unsteady Aerodynamic Data in Turbomachinery Periodic Flows,” XXIII Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Turbomachinery, Stuttgart, Germany, Sept. 1–2.
Lepicovsky, J. , 2007, “ Unsteady Velocity Measurements in the NASA Research Low Speed Axial Compressor,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington, DC, NASA Technical Report No. CR-2007-214815. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/archive/nasa/casi.ntrs.nasa.gov/20070022841.pdf
Pfau, A. , Schlienger, J. , Kalfas, A. I. , and Abhari, R. S. , 2002, “ Virtual Four Sensor Fast Response Aerodynamic Probe,” XVI Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Turbomachinery, Cambridge, UK, Sept. 23–24.
Schlienger, J. , Pfau, A. , Kalfas, A. I. , and Abhari, R. S. , 2002, “ Measuring Unsteady 3D Flow With a Single Pressure Transducer,” XVI Symposium on Measuring Techniques in Turbomachinery, Cambridge, UK, Sept. 23–24.
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Figures

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Fig. 1

Total pressure probe with a built-in thin slate diaphragm and a single wire strain gage (MEI)

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Fig. 2

Kiel wide angle probe with an attached single wire strain gage pressure transducer (MEI)

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Fig. 3

Recorded rotating stall cell event in an axial compressor; time mark is 500 Hz (MEI)

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Fig. 4

Total pressure probe wire strain gauges (VZLU, Prague)

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Fig. 5

MIT combined probes for total and static pressures (a) and flow direction (b)

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Fig. 6

Flow angles downstream of an axial rotor; BTR, blade tip region; BUHR, rotor blade upper half region; BLHR, blade lower half region (MIT)

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Fig. 7

Silicon diaphragm with imbeded sensors (VUST, Prague)

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Fig. 8

Pressure transducer design (VZLU, Prague)

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Fig. 9

Pressure transducer PT-3 on millimeter grid (VZLU, Prague)

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Fig. 10

Pressure transducer PT-3 response to a shock wave

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Fig. 11

Response to a shock wave by pressure sensor with attached 10-mm long inlet adapter

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Fig. 12

Natural frequency of a pressure probe as a function of the probe inlet tube length

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Fig. 13

Total pressure probe design (VZLU, Prague)

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Fig. 14

Response to a shock wave by total pressure probe with dual protective screen (VZLU, Prague)

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Fig. 15

Heads of VZLU unsteady pressure probes; (a) total pressure; (b) static pressure; (c) flow direction [10]

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Fig. 16

Wedge flow direction probe design (VZLU, Prague)

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Fig. 17

Static pressure probe at the radial impeller exit

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Fig. 18

Photographs of single (upper photo) and multiple (lower photo) sweeps of acquired pre ssure data

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Fig. 19

Three-dimensional image of the impeller blade channel exit velocity vector field [10]

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Fig. 20

Advanced total pressure probe design (F-CT-12, VZLU)

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Fig. 21

Yaw direction characteristic of total pressure probe F-CT-12

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Fig. 22

Records of axial compressor stage rotating stall and surge flow instabilities [11]

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Fig. 30

Total pressure probe design (NASA GRC)

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Fig. 29

Single pressure sensor cylinder probe [17]

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Fig. 28

VKI three-sensor cylinder probe [16]

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Fig. 27

ETH three-sensor cylinder probe [15]

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Fig. 26

Four-sensor pyramid robe for complex 3D complex flow investigation [14]

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Fig. 25

Combined wedge probe for pressure steady and unsteady measurements [13]

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Fig. 24

Combined total pressure and flow direction wedge probe

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Fig. 23

Three-sensor fast-response pressure probe [12]

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Fig. 31

Wedge probe design (NASA GRC)

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Fig. 32

Radiogram of wedge probe head

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Fig. 33

Stages in NASA wedge probe assembly

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Fig. 34

Yaw direction characteristic of NASA GRC wedge probe

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Fig. 35

ETH miniature single-tap pressure probes ((a) yaw angle; (b) pitch angle)

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Fig. 36

Two-sensor combined probe for 3D flow (ETH)

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Fig. 37

Probe yaw angle settings for ETH steady flow calibration

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Fig. 38

Definition of peak pressure flow angle φ

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Fig. 39

Fast-response PC pressure probe (NASA GRC)

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Fig. 40

Flow yaw angle direction characteristic of PC probe (NASA)

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Fig. 41

Phase out velocity vectors passing by Pitot-cylinder probe at two yaw angle settings

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Fig. 42

Detected pressure distributions for blade channels passing at various angle settings of the Pitot-cylinder probe

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Fig. 43

Graphic interpretation of computer algorithm for finding flow angle and total pressure values

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Fig. 44

Process of building absolute flow angle distribution along blade pitch

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Fig. 45

Scaled comparison of the probe heads with a wake width

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Fig. 46

Flow angle distributions at the rotor exit measured by wedge, Pitot-cylinder, and split-fiber probes

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Fig. 47

View of the tested radial impeller

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Fig. 48

Ensemble averaged PC probe data taken close to the impeller shroud for all probe yaw angle settings

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Fig. 49

Ensemble averaged PC probe data taken close to the impeller back plate for all probe yaw angle settings

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Fig. 54

Sequence of PC probe yaw angle settings for GTR measurement methodology

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Fig. 50

Total pressure contours at the radial impeller exit

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Fig. 51

Flow absolute angle contours at the radial impeller exit

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Fig. 52

Secondary flow pattern in a radial impeller blade channel exit plane

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Fig. 53

Jet and wake structure of a radial impeller discharge flow

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