0
Research Papers

Influence of Rain Ingestion on the Endwall Treatment in an Axial Flow Compressor

[+] Author and Article Information
Jichao Li

Industrial Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: lijichao@iet.cn

Juan Du

Industrial Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China
e-mail: dujuan@iet.cn

Mingzhen Li, Feng Lin

Key Laboratory of Advanced Energy and Power,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS,
Beijing 100190, China

Hongwu Zhang, Chaoqun Nie

Industrial Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Institute of Engineering Thermophysics, CAS,
University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,
Beijing 100190, China

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received March 8, 2017; final manuscript received June 5, 2018; published online July 24, 2018. Assoc. Editor: Seung Jin Song.

J. Turbomach 140(8), 081001 (Jul 24, 2018) (13 pages) Paper No: TURBO-17-1040; doi: 10.1115/1.4040550 History: Received March 08, 2017; Revised June 05, 2018

The effects of water ingestion on the performance of an axial flow compressor are experimentally studied with and without endwall treatment. The background to the work is derived from the assessment of airworthiness for an aero-engine. The stability-enhancing effects with endwall treatments under rain ingestion are not previously known. Moreover, all the endwall treatments are designed under dry air conditions in the compressor. Water ingestion at 3% and 5% relative to the design mass flow proposed in the airworthiness standard are applied to initially investigate the effects on the performance under smooth casing (SC). Results show that the water ingestions are mainly located near the casing wall after they move through the rotor blade row. The pressure rise coefficient increases, efficiency declines, and torque increases under the proposed water ingestion. The increase of the inlet water increases the thickness of the water film downstream the rotor blade row and aggravates the adverse effects on the performances. Subsequently, three endwall treatments, namely circumferential grooves, axial slots, and hybrid slots–grooves, are tested with and without water ingestion. Compared with no water ingestion, the circumferential grooves basically have no resistance to the water ingestion. The axial slots best prevent the drop of the pressure rise coefficient induced by water ingestion, and hybrid slots–grooves are the second-best place owing to the contribution of the front axial slots. Therefore, the hybrid slots–grooves can not only extend the stall margin with less efficiency penalty compared with axial slots, but also prevent rain ingestion from worsening the compressor performance.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Kissel, G. J. , 1980, “ Rain and Hail Extremes at Altitude,” J. Aircr., 17(7), pp. 464–467. [CrossRef]
Devine, K. , 1990, “ Inclement Weather Induced Aircraft Engine Power Loss,” AIAA Paper No. 90-2169.
AGARD, 1995, “ Recommended Practices for the Assessment of the Effects of Atmospheric Water Ingestion on the Performance and Operability of Gas Turbine Engines,” The Advisory Group for Aerospace Research and Development, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France, Advisory Report No. 332. https://www.scribd.com/document/60008150/AGARD-AR-332
JAA, 1997, “ Ingestion of Rain and Hail, Harmonised Changes to JAR-E and FAR Part 33,” Joint Aviation Authorities, Cologne, Germany, Technical Report.
Riley, S. , 1997, “ Whole Engine Water/Ice Ingestion Strategy—Final Report,” Rolls-Royce plc, Manchester, UK, Technical Report.
Rolls-Royce plc, 1996, The Jet Engine, 5th ed., Rolls-Royce plc, Manchester, UK.
Davis, M. , 2004, “ A Numerical Investigation of the Effects of Steam Ingestion on Compression System Performance,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-54190.
Obermuller, M. , Schmidt, K. , Schulte, H. , and Peitsch, D. , 2012, “ Some Aspects on Wet Compression-Physical Effects and Modeling Strategies Used in Engine Performance Tools,” Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrtkongress, Berlin, Sept. 10–12, Paper No. DLRK-2012-281210. http://www.dglr.de/publikationen/2012/281210.pdf
Venkataramani, K. S. , and McVey, L. J. , 2006, “ Scoop Effects in Inclement Weather Operation,” AIAA Paper No. 2006-207.
Day, I. , Williams, J. , and Freeman, C. , 2008, “ Rain Ingestion in Axial Flow Compressors at Part Speed,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(1), p. 011024. [CrossRef]
Williams, J. , 2008, “ Further Effects of Water Ingestion on Axial Flow Compressors and Aeroengines at Part Speed,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50620.
Roumeliotis, I. , Alexiou, A. , Aretakis, N. , Sieros, G. , and Mathioudakis, K. , 2014, “ Development and Integration of Rain Ingestion Effects in Engine Performance Simulations,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(4), p. 041202. [CrossRef]
Liu, L. , Zhang, H. , Li, J. , Yu, C. , Lin, F. , and Nie, C. , 2013, “ Measurements and Visualization of Process From Steady-State to Stall in an Axial Compressor With Water Ingestion,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95253.
Eisfeld, T. , and Joos, F. , 2009, “ Experimental Investigation of Two-Phase Flow Phenomena in Transonic Compressor Cascades,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59365.
Das, K. , Hamed, A. A. , and Basu, D. , 2006, “ Droplet Trajectories and Collection on Fan Rotor at Off-Design Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-91214.
Nikolaidis, T. , Pilidis, P. , Teixeira, J. A. , and Pachidis, V. , 2008, “ Water Film Formation on an Axial Flow Compressor Rotor Blade,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50137.
Hathaway, M. D. , 2007, “ Passive Endwall Treatments for Enhancing Stability,” National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Cleveland, OH, Report No. TM-2007-214409. https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20070025023
Day, I. J. , 1993, “ Active Suppression of Rotating Stall and Surge in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(1), pp. 40–47. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , 2016, “ Self-Adaptive Stability-Enhancing Technology With Tip Air Injection in an Axial Flow Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 139(1), p. 011008. [CrossRef]
Geng, S. , Zhang, H. , Chen, J. , and Huang, W. , 2007, “ Numerical Study on the Unsteady Response of Tip Leakage Flow Unsteadiness to Discrete Micro Tip Injection in a Low-Speed Isolated Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27729.
Du, J. , Li, J. , Gao, L. , Lin, F. , and Chen, J. , 2016, “ The Impact of Casing Groove Location on Stall Margin and Tip Clearance Flow in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(12), p. 121007. [CrossRef]
Du, J. , Li, F. , Li, J. , Ma, N. , Lin, F. , and Chen, J. , 2015, “ A Study of Performance and Flow Mechanism of a Slot-Groove Hybrid Casing Treatment in a Low-Speed Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2015-43920.
Qingxiang, M. , 2002, “ Aero Engine Sea Level Water Ingestion Simulation Test,” J. Gas Turbine Exp. Res., 15(4), pp. 39–44 (in Chinese).
Houghton, T. , and Day, I. , 2010, “ Enhancing the Stability of the Subsonic Compressor Using Casing Grooves,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(2), p. 021007. [CrossRef]
Li, J. , Lin, F. , Wang, S. , Du, J. , Nie, C. , and Chen, J. , 2014, “ Extensive Experimental Study of Circumferential Single Groove in an Axial Flow Compressor,” ASME Paper No. GT2014-26859.
Li, J. , Lin, F. , Tong, Z. , Nie, C. , and Chen, J. , 2015, “ The Dual Mechanisms and Implementations of Stability Enhancement With Discrete Tip Injection in Axial Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(3), p. 031010. [CrossRef]
Zhang, H. , Tian, X. , Pan, X. , Zhou, J. , and Zheng, Q. , 2016, “ Formation Process of Water Film and Performance Effect on Compressor Stage,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56569.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Schematic of test rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Water ingestion in the inlet duct

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Characteristic line under SC without water ingestion: (a) ΨΦ and (b) ηΦ

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Characteristic lines under water ingestion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Effects of water ingestion on efficiency

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Effects of water ingestion on torque meter

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Diagram of trajectory of water droplets through the rotor blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Water film in the downstream duct of the rotor blade

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Sketch map of circumferential grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Characteristic line with circumferential grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Effects of water on efficiency under circumferential grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Effects of water on torque under circumferential grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Sketch map of axial slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Characteristic line with axial slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Effects of water on efficiency with axial slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Effects of water on torque with axial slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Sketch map of hybrid slots–grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Characteristic line with hybrid slots–grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Effects of water on efficiency with hybrid slots–grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Effects of water on torque with hybrid slots–grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Effects of water ingestion on the performance under different cases: (a) dry air, (b) water ingestion with 3%, and (c) water ingestion with 5%

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Structure of the injector

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Stall margin improvement as a function of injected momentum ratios

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Characteristic lines with tip air injection under water ingestion: (a) point A and (b) point B

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Pressure contour in the tip region and stream lines in circumferential grooves

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Distribution of water in the grooves: (a) no water ingestion and (b) water ingestion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Pressure contour in the tip region and stream lines in the axial slots

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Trajectory of water in the axial slots: (a) no water ingestion and (b) water ingestion

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In