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Research Papers

Experimental Deposition of NaCl Particles From Turbulent Flows at Gas Turbine Temperatures

[+] Author and Article Information
Peter R. Forsyth

Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford Thermofluids Institute,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK
e-mail: peter.forsyth@eng.ox.ac.uk

David R. H. Gillespie, Matthew McGilvray

Department of Engineering Science,
Oxford Thermofluids Institute,
University of Oxford,
Oxford OX2 0ES, UK

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received February 13, 2018; final manuscript received July 9, 2018; published online January 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Coutier-Delgosha Olivier.

J. Turbomach 141(2), 021001 (Jan 16, 2019) (8 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1026; doi: 10.1115/1.4041036 History: Received February 13, 2018; Revised July 09, 2018

The ingestion and deposition of solid particulates within gas turbine engines has become a very significant concern for both designers and operators in recent times. Frequently aircraft are operated in environments where sand, ash, dust, and salt are present, which can drive damage mechanisms from long term component degradation to in-flight flame-out. Experiments are presented to assess deposition characteristics of sodium chloride (NaCl) at gas turbine secondary air system temperature conditions in horizontal pipe flow. Monodisperse NaCl particles were generated in the size range 2.0–6.5 µm, with gas temperatures 390–480 °C, and metal temperatures 355–730 °C. Two engine-representative surface roughnesses were assessed. An experimental technique for the measurement of deposited NaCl based on solution conductivity was developed and validated. Experiments were carried out under isothermal and nonisothermal/thermophoretic conditions. An initial experimental campaign was conducted under ambient and isothermal conditions; high temperature isothermal results showed good similarity. Under thermophoretic conditions, deposition rates varied by up to several orders of magnitude compared to isothermal rates.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Summary of some key experimental data for particle deposition in turbulent vertical pipe (markers) and horizontal channel (green region) flows at ambient conditions. Adapted from Ref. [11].

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Fig. 2

Schematic of experimental rig

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Fig. 3

Experimental test piece with test insert removed

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Fig. 4

Measured solution conductivity dependence on NaCl concentration. Plotting axis reversed as experimental analysis requires Cm=Cm(G). Conductivity at 25 °C.

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Fig. 5

Vd+ against τp+ for all ambient temperature tests, colored by Re

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Fig. 6

Vd+ against τp+ for all ambient temperature tests, colored by nominal particle kinetic energy Ek, p. Lines show theoreticaldeposition curves for coefficient of restitution r=0.0, r=0.5, r=0.96 from Ref. [15].

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Fig. 7

Vd+ against τp+ for all ambient temperature tests, comparing surface roughnesses. EXPα: Ra=0.22µm. EXPβ: Ra=1.12µm.

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Fig. 8

Comparison of all isothermal hot data with ambient temperature experiments

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Fig. 9

Nondimensional deposition velocity versus nondimensional particle relaxation time for thermophoretic experiments

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Fig. 10

Log of normalized deposition fraction ln(fd¯) against thermophoretic parameter PTh+

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