0
Research Papers

Poststall Behavior of a Multistage High Speed Compressor at Off-Design Conditions

[+] Author and Article Information
Fanzhou Zhao

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: fanzhou.zhao11@imperial.ac.uk

John Dodds

Rolls-Royce plc,
P.O. Box 31,
Derby DE24 8BJ, UK
e-mail: john.dodds@rolls-royce.com

Mehdi Vahdati

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Imperial College London,
London SW7 2AZ, UK
e-mail: m.vahdati@imperial.ac.uk

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 27, 2018; final manuscript received August 8, 2018; published online October 15, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(12), 121002 (Oct 15, 2018) (18 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1174; doi: 10.1115/1.4041142 History: Received July 27, 2018; Revised August 08, 2018

Stall followed by surge in a high speed compressor can lead to violent disruption of flow, damage to the blade structures and, eventually, engine shutdown. Knowledge of unsteady blade loading during such events is crucial in determining the aeroelastic stability of blade structures; experimental test of such events is, however, significantly limited by the potential risk and cost associated. Numerical modeling, such as unsteady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, can provide a more informative understanding of the flow field and blade forcing during poststall events; however, very limited publications, particularly concerning multistage high speed compressors, can be found. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the possibility of using CFD for modeling full-span rotating stall and surge in a multistage high speed compressor, and, where possible, validate the results against experimental measurements. The paper presents an investigation into the onset and transient behavior of rotating stall and surge in an eight-stage high speed axial compressor at off-design conditions, based on 3D Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes (URANS) computations, with the ultimate future goal being aeroelastic modeling of blade forcing and response during such events. By assembling the compressor with a small and a large exit plenum volume, respectively, a full-span rotating stall and a deep surge were modeled. Transient flow solutions obtained from numerical simulations showed trends matching with experimental measurements. Some insights are gained as to the onset, propagation, and merging of stall cells during the development of compressor stall and surge. It is shown that surge is initiated as a result of an increase in the size of the rotating stall disturbance, which grows circumferentially to occupy the full circumference resulting in an axisymmetric flow reversal.

Copyright © 2018 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Day, I. J. , 2015, “ Stall, Surge, and 75 Years of Research,” ASME J. Turbomach., 138(1), p. 011001. [CrossRef]
Tryfonidis, M. , Etchevers, O. , Paduano, J. D. , and Epstein, A. H. , 1995, “ Prestall Behavior of Several High-Speed Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 117(1), pp. 62–80. [CrossRef]
Day, I. J. , 1994, “ Axial Compressor Performance During Surge,” J. Propul. Power, 10(3), pp. 329–336. [CrossRef]
Camp, T. R. , and Day, I. J. , 1998, “ A Study of Spike and Modal Stall Phenomena in a Low-Speed Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120(3), p. 393. [CrossRef]
Greitzer, E. M. , 1976, “ Surge and Rotating Stall in Axial Flow Compressors—Part I: Theoretical Compression System Model,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 98(2), p. 190. [CrossRef]
Day, I. J. , and Freeman, C. , 1994, “ The Unstable Behavior of Low and High-Speed Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 116(2), p. 194. [CrossRef]
Mazzawy, R. S. , 1980, “ Surge-Induced Structural Loads in Gas Turbines,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 102(1), p. 162. [CrossRef]
Vahdati, M. , Simpson, G. , and Imregun, M. , 2008, “ Unsteady Flow and Aeroelasticity Behavior of Aeroengine Core Compressors During Rotating Stall and Surge,” ASME J. Turbomach., 130(3), p. 031017. [CrossRef]
Choi, M. , Smith, N. H. S. , and Vahdati, M. , 2012, “ Validation of Numerical Simulation for Rotating Stall in a Transonic Fan,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(2), p. 021004. [CrossRef]
Crevel, F. , Gourdain, N. , and Ottavy, X. , 2014, “ Numerical Simulation of Aerodynamic Instabilities in a Multistage High-Speed High-Pressure Compressor on Its Test Rig—Part II: Deep Surge,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(10), p. 101004. [CrossRef]
Dodds, J. , and Vahdati, M. , 2015, “ Rotating Stall Observations in a High Speed Compressor—Part II: Numerical Study,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051003. [CrossRef]
Dodds, J. , and Vahdati, M. , 2015, “ Rotating Stall Observations in a High Speed Compressor—Part I: Experimental Study,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051002. [CrossRef]
Sayma, A. I. , Vahdati, M. , Sbardella, L. , and Imregun, M. , 2000, “ Modeling of Three-Dimensional Viscous Compressible Turbomachinery Flows Using Unstructured Hybrid Grids,” AIAA J., 38(6), pp. 945–954. [CrossRef]
Lee, K.-B. , Wilson, M. , and Vahdati, M. , 2018, “ Validation of a Numerical Model for Predicting Stalled Flows in a Low-Speed Fan—Part I: Modification of Spalart–Allmaras Turbulence Model,” ASME J. Turbomach., 140(5), p. 051008. [CrossRef]
Vahdati, M. , Simpson, G. , and Imregun, M. , 2011, “ Mechanisms for Wide-Chord Fan Blade Flutter,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(4), p. 041029. [CrossRef]

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Schematic example showing visualization of postprocessed results for an evolving 3 cell rotating stall solution: (a) circumferential profile and (b) circumferential modal content

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

The unsteady computational domain (compressor section)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

(a) Meridian view of the compressor. Outline of the computational domain with (b) large plenum volume (B = 1.6) and (c) small plenum volume (B = 0.5).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Poststall behavior of a compressor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 1 inlet, 95% span

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 1 exit, 5% span

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Time-averaged total pressure contour at stator 4 trailing edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Modal content of axial velocity at various axial stations, 50% span: (a) Rev 0, (b) Rev 3, and (c) Rev 9 (No available data at stator inlet planes)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Normalized steady-state performance: (a) Overall, (b) IGV inlet to S3 inlet, (c) S3 inlet to S6 inlet, and (d) S6 inlet to S8 inlet

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Total pressure radial profile at stator 3 leading edge

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Midpassage entropy function

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Evolution of stall cell size at various axial stations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Instantaneous entropy contour on the casing surface, Manoeuver S: B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Modal content of axial velocity at various axial stations at the end of revolution 10: (a) 5% span and (b) 95% span

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 3 exit, 50% span

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Transient mass flow function and static pressure (area averaged), Manoeuver S: B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Transient overall performance, Manoeuver S: B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 3 exit, (a) 5% and (b) 50% span, Manoeuver S: B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

Transient solution at stator 1 exit, Manoeuver S: B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 20

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 1 exit, 5% span, Manoeuver S: B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 22

Transient overall performance, Manoeuver L: B = 1.6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 23

Transient block performance, Manoeuver L: B = 1.6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 24

Instantaneous midpassage entropy function at revolution 15, with reverse flow through whole compressor

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 25

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 3 exit, 5% span, Manoeuver L: B = 1.6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 26

Evolution of stall cell size at stator 3 exit

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 27

Modal content of axial velocity at various axial stations, 50% span: (a) Rev 0, (b) Rev 2, and (c) Rev 10

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 28

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 7 exit, 50% span, Manoeuver S: B = 0.5

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 29

Evolution of circumferential profile and modal content of axial velocity at stator 7 exit, 50% span, Manoeuver L: B = 1.6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 21

Transient mass flow function and static pressure (area averaged), Manoeuver L: B = 1.6

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 30

Casing static pressure signals at the onset of surge, Manoeuver L: B = 1.6

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In