Research Papers

Effects of Transient Heat Transfer on Compressor Stability

[+] Author and Article Information
A. Kiss

Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: akiss@mit.edu

Z. Spakovszky

Gas Turbine Laboratory,
Massachusetts Institute of Technology,
77 Massachusetts Avenue,
Cambridge, MA 02139
e-mail: zolti@mit.edu

1Corresponding author.

2The rotor acceleration time constant is governed by the rotor inertia and is typically on the order of seconds.

3In this paper, stall margin is defined using the common industry definition: SM = (PRstall−PRop)/PRop, where PRop is the pressure ratio at the operating point and PRstall is the pressure ratio at stall for a given inlet corrected mass flow.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received August 2, 2018; final manuscript received August 21, 2018; published online October 15, 2018. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 140(12), 121003 (Oct 15, 2018) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1182; doi: 10.1115/1.4041290 History: Received August 02, 2018; Revised August 21, 2018

The effects of heat transfer between the compressor structure and the primary gas path flow on compressor stability are investigated during hot engine re-acceleration transients. A mean line analysis of an advanced, high-pressure ratio compressor is extended to include the effects of heat transfer on both stage matching and blade row flow angle deviation. A lumped capacitance model is used to compute the heat transfer of the compressor blades, hub, and casing to the primary gas path. The inputs to the compressor model with heat transfer are based on a combination of full engine data, compressor test rig measurements, and detailed heat transfer computations. Nonadiabatic transient calculations show a 8.0 point reduction in stall margin from the adiabatic case, with heat transfer predominantly altering the transient stall line. 3.4 points of the total stall margin reduction are attributed to the effect of heat transfer on blade row deviation, with the remainder attributed to stage rematching. Heat transfer increases loading in the front stages and destabilizes the front block. Sensitivity studies show a strong dependence of stall margin to heat transfer magnitude and flow angle deviation at low speed, due to the effects of compressibility. Computations for the same transient using current cycle models with bulk heat transfer effects only capture 1.2 points of the 8.0 point stall margin reduction. Based on this new capability, opportunities exist early in the design process to address potential stability issues due to transient heat transfer.

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Fig. 1

Baseline adiabatic operating line and compressor map for Bodie transient from mean line model

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Fig. 2

Modeled heat transfer mechanisms and thermal network representation used to estimate representative heat transfer

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Fig. 3

Transient net heat transfer rate during re-acceleration portion of a Bodie with maximum heat addition at initial re-acceleration

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Fig. 4

Generic representation of the effects of heat transfer on a compressor speed line. Heat addition to the gas path fluid reduces flow capacity, stalling pressure ratio, and speed line slope.

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Fig. 5

Generic representation of time-dependent speed lines due to unsteady heat transfer

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Fig. 6

Schematic example of a composite compressor map used to represent the unsteady nature of speed lines and stall line during a transient with heat transfer

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Fig. 7

Computed composite compressor map with heat transfer. Heat transfer produces a larger shift in the stall line than the transient operating line.

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Fig. 8

Stall margin throughout the re-acceleration transient with a maximum of 8.0 points of stall margin loss

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Fig. 9

Median percent change in blade row disturbance power generation due to heat addition. Front stages produce greater disturbance power and destabilize the compressor.

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Fig. 10

Axial Mach numbers with uniform heat addition in front block. Heat addition increases front block loading.

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Fig. 11

Axial Mach numbers with uniform heat addition in middle block. Effects of heat addition are contained to front and middle blocks.

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Fig. 12

Axial Mach numbers with uniform heat addition in rear block. Heat addition back-pressures all upstream blade rows.

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Fig. 13

Axial Mach numbers at the 78% speed stall point. Heat addition increases loading of front stages.

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Fig. 14

Sensitivity of stall margin to deviation correlation parameter ζ. Nonlinear dependence at 85% speed attributed to compressibility effects.

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Fig. 15

Sensitivity of stall margin to heat transfer magnitude with the same sensitivity observed at 85% speed

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Fig. 16

Stall margin computed with nonadiabatic mean line model and current capability which captures only 1.2 points of stall margin loss



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