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research-article

Simulation of volcanic ash ingestion into a large aero engine: Particle-fan interactions

[+] Author and Article Information
Andreas Vogel

Atmospheric and Climate Department, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway and Department of Geoscience, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
vogel.avo@gmail.com

Adam J. Durant

Satavia Ltd., Cambridge, UK and Geological and Mining, Engineering and Sciences, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, USA
adam.durant@satavia.com

Massimo Cassiani

Atmospheric and Climate Department, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
massimo.cassiani@nilu.no

Rory J. Clarkson

Rolls-Royce plc., Engine Environmental Protection, Derby, UK
rory.clarkson@rolls-royce.com

Michal Slaby

Rolls-Royce plc., Installation Aerodynamics, Derby, UK
michal.slaby@rolls-royce.com

Spyros Diplas

SINTEF-Industry, Oslo, Norway
spyros.diplas@sintef.no

Kirstin Krüger

Department of Geoscience, University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway
kirstin.kruger@geo.uio.no

Andreas Stohl

Atmospheric and Climate Department, Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Kjeller, Norway
andreas.stohl@nilu.no

1Corresponding author.

ASME doi:10.1115/1.4041464 History: Received March 04, 2018; Revised September 08, 2018

Abstract

Volcanic ash clouds in flight corridors present a significant threat to aircraft operations as volcanic ash particles can cause damage to gas turbine engine components that lead to a reduction of engine performance and compromise flight safety. In the last decade, research has mainly focused on processes such as erosion of compressor components caused by impinging ash particles as well as clogging and/or corrosion effects of soft or molten ash particles on hot section turbine airfoils and components. However, there is a lack of information on how the fan separates ingested volcanic ash particles from the core stream flow into the bypass flow and therefore influences the mass concentration inside the engine core section. In this numerical simulation study, we investigated the volcanic ash particle-fan interactions and resulting reductions in particle mass concentrations entering the engine core section as a function of particle size, fan rotation rate, and for two different flight altitudes. We used a high-bypass gas-turbine engine design for numerical computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations including a Lagrangian particle-tracking algorithm. Our results reveal that particle-fan interactions redirect particles from the core stream flow into the bypass stream tube, which leads to a significant particle mass concentration reduction inside the engine core section. As an example, we applied our methodology to a recent aircraft encounter during the Mt. Kelud 2014 eruption and calculated the effective particle mass concentration inside the engine core along the actual flight track.

Copyright (c) 2018 by ASME
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