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Research Papers

Experimental Investigation on Additively Manufactured Transpiration and Film Cooling Structures

[+] Author and Article Information
Zheng Min, Sarwesh Narayan Parbat, Minking K. Chyu

Department of Mechanical Engineering and
Material Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261

Gan Huang

Department of Thermal Engineering,
Tsinghua University,
Beijing 10084, China

Li Yang

Department of Mechanical Engineering and
Material Science,
University of Pittsburgh,
Pittsburgh, PA 15261
e-mail: thudteyl@gmail.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received October 13, 2018; final manuscript received November 6, 2018; published online January 16, 2019. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 141(3), 031009 (Jan 16, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1290; doi: 10.1115/1.4042009 History: Received October 13, 2018; Revised November 06, 2018

The last 50 years has witnessed significant improvement in film cooling technologies while transpiration cooling is still not implemented in turbine airfoil cooling. Although transpiration cooling could provide higher cooling efficiency with less coolant consumption compared to film cooling, the fine pore structure and high porosity in transpiration cooling metal media always raised difficulties in conventional manufacturing. Recently, the rapid development of additive manufacturing (AM) has provided a new perspective to address such challenge. With the capability of the innovative powder bed selective laser metal sintering (SLMS) AM technology, the complex geometries of transpiration cooling part could be precisely fabricated and endued with improved mechanical strength. This study utilized the SLMS AM technology to fabricate the transpiration cooling and film cooling structures with Inconel 718 superalloy. Five different types of porous media including two perforated plates with different hole pitches, metal sphere packing, metal wire mesh, and blood vessel shaped passages for transpiration cooling were fabricated by EOS M290 system. One laidback fan-shaped film cooling coupon was also fabricated with the same printing process as the control group. Heat transfer tests under three different coolant mass flow rates and four different mainstream temperatures were conducted to evaluate the cooling performance of the printed coupons. The effects of geometry parameters including porosity, surface outlet area ratio, and internal solid–fluid interface area ratio were investigated as well. The results showed that the transpiration cooling structures generally had higher cooling effectiveness than film cooling structure. The overall average cooling effectiveness of blood vessel-shaped transpiration cooling reached 0.35, 0.5, and 0.57, respectively, with low (1.2%), medium (2.4%), and high (3.6%) coolant injection ratios. The morphological parameters analysis showed the major factor that affected the cooling effectiveness most was the internal solid–fluid interface area ratio for transpiration cooling. This study showed that additive manufactured transpiration cooling could be a promising alternative method for turbine blade cooling and worthwhile for further investigations.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Illustrative figure of heat transfer test rig

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Fig. 2

Pictures and illustrative figures of four types of transpiration structure: (a) round holes with pitch of 3D (RH-3D), (b) round holes with pitch of 2D (RH-2D), (c) spheres packing (SP), (d) wire mesh (WM), (e) blood vessel shaped (BV)

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Fig. 3

Cross section view of spheres packing design

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Fig. 4

Cross section view of wire mesh design

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Fig. 5

Unit fluid passage structure of blood vessel shaped design

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Fig. 6

Design of film cooling plate

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Fig. 7

EOS M290 system and schematic figure of printing process

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Fig. 8

Illustrative figure for cooling effective area

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Fig. 9

Cooling effectiveness analysis methodology

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Fig. 10

Effectiveness distributions of six types of cooling structures

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Fig. 11

Streamwise cooling effectiveness distributions

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Fig. 12

Plots of effectiveness versus geometry parameters: (a) effectiveness η versus measured porosity ϕ, (b) effectiveness versus internal surface ratio, and (c) effectiveness versus outlet area ratio

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