Research Papers

Size- and Temperature-Dependent Collision and Deposition Model for Micron-Sized Sand Particles

[+] Author and Article Information
Kuahai Yu

Department of Engineering Mechanics,
Henan University of Science and Technology,
Luoyang 471023, China
e-mail: yukuahai@163.com

Danesh Tafti

Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Virginia Tech.,
Blacksburg, VA 24061
e-mail: dtafti@exchange.vt.edu

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received April 5, 2018; final manuscript received December 7, 2018; published online January 16, 2019. Assoc. Editor: David G. Bogard.

J. Turbomach 141(3), 031001 (Jan 16, 2019) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1079; doi: 10.1115/1.4042215 History: Received April 05, 2018; Revised December 07, 2018

Sand ingestion and deposition in gas turbine engine components can lead to several operational hazards. This paper discusses a physics-based model for modeling the impact, deposition, and sticking of sand particles to surfaces. The collision model includes both normal and tangential components of impact. The normal collision model divides the impact process into three stages, the elastic stage, the elastic–plastic stage, and full plastic stage, and the recovery process is assumed to be fully elastic. The adhesion loss in the recovery stage is described using Timoshenko's model and Tsai's model, and shows that the two models are consistent under certain conditions. Plastic deformation losses of surface asperities are also considered for particle–wall collisions. The normal impact model is supplemented by an impulse-based tangential model, which includes both sliding and rolling frictions. Sand properties are characterized by size and temperature dependencies. The predicted coefficient of restitution (COR) of micron-sized sand particles is in very good agreement with experimental data at room temperature and at higher temperatures from 1073 K to 1340 K. The predicted COR decreases rapidly at temperatures above 1340 K. There is a strong interplay between the size-dependent properties of micron sand particles and the temperature dependency of yield stress on the collision and deposition characteristics. This is the first physics-based high temperature model including translation and rotation of micron-sized sand particles with sliding and rolling modes in the gas turbine literature.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Wu, C. Y. , Thornton, C. , and Li, L. Y. , 2003, “ Coefficients of Restitution for Elastoplastic Oblique Impacts,” Adv. Powder Technol., 14(4), pp. 435–448. [CrossRef]
Chen, S. , Li, S. , and Yang, M. , 2015, “ Sticking/Rebound Criterion for Collisions of Small Adhesive Particles: Effects of Impact Parameter and Particle Size,” Powder Technol., 274, pp. 431–440. [CrossRef]
Walsh, W. S. , Thole, K. A. , and Joe, C. , “ Effects of Sand Ingestion on the Blockage of Film-Cooling Holes,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90067.
Bonilla, C. , Clum, C. , Lawrence, M. , Casaday, B. , and Bons, J. P. , “ The Effect of Film Cooling on Nozzle Guide Vane Deposition,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-95081.
Barker, B. J. , Hsu, K. , Varney, B. , Boulanger, A. , Hutchinson, J. , and Ng, W. F. , 2017, “ An Experiment-Based Sticking Model for Heated Sand,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64421.
Boulanger, J. , Patel, H. D. , Hutchinson, J. , DeShong, W. , Xu, W. , Ng, W. F. , and Ekkad, S. V. , 2016, “ Preliminary Experimental Investigation of Initial Onset of Sand Deposition in the Turbine Section of Gas Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56059.
Boulanger, A. , Hutchinson, J. , Ng, W. F. , Ekkad, S. V. , Keefe, M. J. , and Xu, W. , 2017, “ Experimental Based Empirical Model of the Initial Onset of Sand Deposits on Hastelloy-X From 1000 °C to 1100 °C Using Particle Tracking,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-64480.
Sreedharan, S. S. , and Tafti, D. K. , 2011, “ Composition Dependent Model for the Prediction of Syngas Ash Deposition in Turbine Gas Hot Path,” Int. J. Heat Fluid Flow, 32(1), pp. 201–211. [CrossRef]
Brach, R. , and Dunn, P. , 1992, “ A Mathematical Model of the Impact and Adhesion of Microspheres,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 16(1), pp. 51–64. [CrossRef]
El-Batsh, H. , and Haselbacher, H. , 2002, “ Numerical Investigation of the Effect of Ash Particle Deposition on the Flow Field Through Turbine Cascades,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30600.
Ai, W. G. , and Fletcher, T. H. , 2011, “ Computational Analysis of Conjugate Heat Transfer and Particulate Deposition on a High Pressure Turbine Vane,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(4), p. 041020.
Singh, S. , and Tafti, D. K. , “ Predicting the Coefficient of Restitution for Particle Wall Collisions in Gas Turbine Components,” ASME Paper No. GT2013-095623.
Singh, S. , and Tafti, D. K. , 2015, “ Prediction of Sand Deposition in a Two-pass Internal Cooling Duct,” ASME Paper No. GT 2015-44103.
Bons, J. P. , Prenter, R. , and Whitaker, S. , 2016, “ A Simple Physics-Based Model for Particle Rebound and Deposition in Turbomachinery,” ASME Paper No. GT2016-56697.
Yu, K. , and Tafti, D. , 2016, “ Impact Model for Micrometer-sized Sand Particles,” Powder Technol., 294, pp. 11–21. [CrossRef]
Stronge, W. J. , 2000, Impact Mechanics, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
Yu, K. , Elghannay, H. A. , and Danesh, T. , 2017, “ An Impulse Based Model for Spherical Particle Collisions With Sliding and Rolling,” Powder Technol., 319, pp. 102–116. [CrossRef]
Dowd, C. , Tafti, D. , and Yu, K. , 2017, “ Sand Transport and Deposition in Rotating Two-Passed Ribbed Duct With Coriolis and Centrifugal Buoyancy Forces at Re=100, 000,” ASME Paper No. GT2017-63167.
Polian, A. , Vo-Thanh, D. , and Richet, P. , 2002, “ Elastic Properties of a-SiO2 Up to 2300 K From Brillouin Scattering Measurements,” Europhys. Lett., 57(3), pp. 375–381. [CrossRef]
Faoite, D. D. , Browne, D. J. , Chang-Díazm, F. R. , and Stanton, F. R. , 2012, “ A Review of the Processing, Composition, and Temperature-Dependent Mechanical and Thermal Properties of Dielectric Technical Ceramics,” J. Mater. Sci., 47, pp. 4211–4235. [CrossRef]
Sommerfeld, M. , and Huber, N. , 1999, “ Experimental Analysis and Modeling of Particle-Wall Collisions,” Int. J. Multiphase Flow, 25(6–7), pp. 1457–1489. [CrossRef]
Tsai, C. J. , Pui, D. Y. H. , and Liu, B. Y. H. , 1990, “ Capture and Rebound of Small Particles Upon Impact With Solid Surfaces,” Aerosol Sci. Technol., 12(3), pp. 497–507. [CrossRef]
Lifshitz, J. M. , and Kolsky, H. , 1964, “ Some Experiments on an Elastic Rebound,” J. Mech. Phys. Solids, 12(1), pp. 35–43. [CrossRef]
Timoshenko, S. , and Goodier, J. N. , 1951, Theory of Elasticity, 2nd ed., McGraw-Hill, New York.
Penumadu, D. , Dutta, A. K. , Luo, X. , and Thomas, K. G. , 2009, “ Nano and Neutron Science Applications for Geomechanics,” KSCE J. Civil Eng., 13(4), pp. 233–242. [CrossRef]
Portnikov, D. , and Kalman, H. , 2014, “ Determination of Elastic Properties of Particles Using Single Particle Compression Test,” Powder Technol., 268, pp. 244–252. [CrossRef]
Reagle, C. J. , Delimont, J. M. , Ng, W. F. , Ekkad, S. V. , and Rajendran, V. P. , 2013, “ Measuring the Coefficient of Restitution of High Speed Microparticle Impacts Using a PTV and CFD Hybrid Technique,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 24(10), p. 105303. [CrossRef]
Kim, O. V. , and Dunn, P. F. , 2007, “ A Microsphere-Surface Impact Model for Implementation in Computational Fluid Dynamics,” J. Aerosol Sci., 38(5), pp. 532–549. [CrossRef]
Delimont, J. M. , 2014, “ Experimental Investigation of Temperature Effects on Microparticle Sand Rebound Characteristics at Gas Turbine Representative Conditions,” Ph.D. thesis, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA. https://vtechworks.lib.vt.edu/handle/10919/47805
Lenard, J. G. , and Kalpakjian, S. , 1991, “ The Effect of Temperature on the Coefficient of Friction in Flat Rolling,” CIRP Ann., 40(1), pp. 223–226. [CrossRef]
Tadić, B. , Kočović, V. , Matejić, M. , Brzaković, L. , Mijatović, M. , and Vukelić, Đ. , 2016, “ Static Coefficient of Rolling Friction at High Contact Temperatures and Various Contact Pressure,” Tribol. Ind., 38(1), pp. 83–89. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/301043681_Static_Coefficient_of_Rolling_Friction_at_High_Contact_Temperatures_and_Various_Contact_Pressure
Delimont, J. M. , Murdock, M. K. , Ng, W. F. , and Ekkad, S. V. , 2015, “ Effect of Temperature on Microparticle Rebound Characteristics at Constant Impact Velocity–Part I,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(11), p. 112604. [CrossRef]
Delimont, J. M. , Murdock, M. K. , Ng, W. F. , and Ekkad, S. V. , 2015, “ Effect of Temperature on Microparticle Rebound Characteristics at Constant Impact Velocity–PartII,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 137(11), p. 112604. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Uniformly distributed hemispheres of surface irregularities

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Comparison of predicted COR of oblique impact of sand particles with experimental data at room temperature at 27 m/s: (a) 29 μm sand particles and (b) 13 μm sand particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Comparison of predicted COR of 24.67 μm sand particles with experimental data at room temperature at 28 m/s: (a) SS 304 steel coupon and (b) HX coupon

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Predicted COR of 24.67 μm sand particles versus angle of impact for SS304 and HX at 1073 K and 28 m/s

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

COR versus angle of impact to HX from 1073 K to 1373K

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Sensitivity of predicted COR to rolling friction coefficient

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Effect of Wasp on normal COR: (a) Normal COR with and without plastic deformation of asperities of sand particles impacting a HX target at room temperature and (b) ratio of Wasp to initial normal kinetic of particles

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Predicted COR of sand particles oblique impact at HX surface with the velocity of 28 m/s: (a) 1273 K, (b) 1340 K, and (c) 1360 K



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In