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Research Papers

Efficient Design Method for Applying Vortex Generators in Turbomachinery

[+] Author and Article Information
Jiabin Li

School of Aerospace Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: lijiabin@bit.edu.cn

Lucheng Ji

Professor
School of Aerospace Engineering,
Beijing Institute of Technology,
Beijing 100081, China
e-mail: jilc@bit.edu.cn

1Corresponding author.

Manuscript received August 20, 2018; final manuscript received February 25, 2019; published online March 13, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Graham Pullan.

J. Turbomach 141(8), 081005 (Mar 13, 2019) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1213; doi: 10.1115/1.4042990 History: Received August 20, 2018; Accepted February 27, 2019

Secondary flow limits the aerodynamic loading level of turbomachinery. Vortex generators (VGs) offer the potential to attenuate secondary flow when implemented at the endwall of the blade passage. Customary design usually relies on computational fluid dynamics (CFD); however, VG geometry modeling and mesh generation are challenging. This paper presents an efficient method for designing the optimal VG layout. In this approach, first, a mathematical model (BAYC) is introduced to replace the actual VGs; hence, simulation can be carried out without detailed VG gridding. Second, an optimization procedure with response surface methods is employed to determine the optimal VG layout. To illustrate the proposed method, compressor cascades with one and three VGs are used as the test cases. The results demonstrate that the optimal VG layout may effectively weaken the secondary flow and can decrease the aerodynamic loss by 15–25% in almost all incidence angle ranges, particularly at positive incidence angles. Flow mechanism analysis indicates that VGs can enhance the boundary layer kinetic energy, thereby elevating the capability to withstand adverse pressure gradients.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Exacerbating factors for corner separation in turbomachinery

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Fig. 2

Basic flow chart of efficient design method

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Fig. 3

Orientation of unit vectors and body forces on vane for VG model

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Fig. 4

Flow chart of optimization procedure

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Fig. 5

Cascade sketch: (a) parameters definition and (b) solid geometry

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Fig. 6

Computational domain for single cascade passage

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Fig. 7

Grid dependence of simulation results

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Fig. 8

Spanwise distribution of total pressure loss coefficient at 0 incidence

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Fig. 9

Comparison of total pressure loss coefficients at different incidence angles

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Fig. 10

VG layout for validation of the BAYC model

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Fig. 11

Comparison of flow parameters profile downstream of VG: (a) flow turning angle and (b) total pressure loss coefficient

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Fig. 12

Parameterization of endwall and location of sample points

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Fig. 13

Spanwise distribution of pitchwise-averaged axial velocity at the trailing edge and the contours at suction surface with the surface streamlines

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Fig. 14

Response surface and related optimal area

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Fig. 15

Optimal results for minimum H/c and Obj

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Fig. 16

Topology and mesh details of grid for single VG application

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Fig. 17

Comparison of streamlines at the suction surface at 0 deg incidence for the prototype case without VG (a) and the two schemes of gridded VG arrangements ((b) scheme 1 (min H/c) and (c) scheme 2 (min Obj))

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Fig. 18

Comparison of total pressure loss coefficient at the outlet at 0 deg incidence for the prototype case without VG (a) and the two schemes of gridded VG arrangements ((b) scheme 1 (min H/c) and (c) scheme 2 (min Obj))

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Fig. 19

Optimal application scheme of three VGs at cascade lower wall

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Fig. 20

Comparison of streamlines at suction at 0 incidence of scheme 3 (three VGs, min Obj)

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Fig. 21

Comparison of total pressure loss coefficient at outlet at 0 incidence of scheme 3 (three VGs, min Obj)

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Fig. 22

Flow streamlines at lower wall: (a) no VG scheme, (b) scheme 2, and (c) scheme 3

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Fig. 23

Pressure coefficient contour at lower wall: (a) no VG scheme, (b) scheme 2, and (c) scheme 3

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Fig. 24

Location sketch of six monitoring positions

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Fig. 25

Velocity distribution along spanwise direction at six monitoring positions: (a) position 1, (b) position 2, (c) position 3, (d) position 4, (e) position 5, and (f) position 6

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Fig. 26

y-Direction velocity component distribution along spanwise direction at six monitoring positions: (a) position 1, (b) position 2, (c) position 3, (d) position 4, (e) position 5, and (f) position 6

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Fig. 27

Schematic of VG control mechanism

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Fig. 28

Total pressure loss coefficients of four cases at different incidence angles

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