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Research Papers

Some Aspects of the Transonic Compressor Tandem Design

[+] Author and Article Information
Alexander Hergt

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
51147 Cologne, Germany
e-mail: alexander.hergt@dlr.de

S. Grund

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
51147 Cologne, Germany
e-mail: sebastian.grund@dlr.de

J. Klinner

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
51147 Cologne, Germany
e-mail: joachim.klinner@dlr.de

W. Steinert

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
51147 Cologne, Germany
e-mail: wolfgang.steinert@dlr.de

M. Beversdorff

German Aerospace Center (DLR),
Institute of Propulsion Technology,
51147 Cologne, Germany
e-mail: manfred.beversdorff@dlr.de

U. Siller

AeroDesignWorks GmbH,
Hauptstraße 108, 50996 Cologne, Germany
e-mail: ulrich.siller@aerodesignworks.com

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received September 11, 2018; final manuscript received March 22, 2019; published online May 30, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 141(9), 091003 (May 30, 2019) (9 pages) Paper No: TURBO-18-1243; doi: 10.1115/1.4043280 History: Received September 11, 2018; Accepted March 22, 2019

For the development of the latest generation of axial compressors, it is necessary to enlarge the design space by using advanced aerodynamic processes. This enables a further increase in efficiency and performance. The use of a tandem blade configuration in a transonic compressor row provides the possibility to enlarge the design space. It is necessary to address the design aspects a bit more in detail in order to efficiently apply this blading concept to turbomachinery. Therefore, in the current study, the known design aspects of tandem blading in compressors will be summed up under the consideration of the aerodynamic effects and construction characteristics of a transonic compressor tandem. Based on this knowledge, a new transonic compressor tandem cascade (DLR TTC) with an inflow Mach number of 0.9 is designed using modern numerical methods and a multi-objective optimization process. Three objective functions as well as three operating points are used in the optimization. Furthermore, both tandem blades and their arrangement are parameterized. From the resulting database of 1246 members, a final best member is chosen as the state-of-the-art design for further detailed investigation. The aim of the ensuing experimental and numerical investigation is to answer the question, whether the tandem cascade resulting from the modern design process fulfills the described design aspects and delivers the requested performance and efficiency criteria. The numerical simulations within the study are carried out with the DLR flow solver TRACE. The experiments are performed at the transonic cascade wind tunnel of DLR in Cologne. The inflow Mach number during the tests is 0.9, and the AVDR is adjusted to 1.3 (design value). Wake measurements with a three-hole probe are carried out in order to determine the cascade performance. The experimental results show an increase in losses and a reduction of the cascade deflection by about 2 deg compared to the design concept. Nevertheless, the experimental and numerical results allow a good understanding of the aerodynamic effects. In addition, planar PIV was applied in a single S1 plane located at midspan to capture the velocity field in the wake of blade 1 in order to analyze the wake flow in detail and describe its influence on the cascade deflection and loss behavior. Finally, an outlook will be given on what future tandem compressor research should be focused.

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Figures

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Fig. 1

Definition of pitchwise and axial positions

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Fig. 2

Blade parametrization [21]

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Fig. 3

Tandem arrangement parameterization [21]

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Fig. 4

Optimization objective function concept

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Fig. 5

Hybrid structured–unstructured grid topology [21]

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Fig. 6

Best members of the database [21]

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Fig. 7

Transonic tandem cascade with planar end wall

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Fig. 8

Cross section of the DLR transonic cascade wind tunnel

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Fig. 9

Cascade parameters, definition of measurement planes, and the boundary layer suction design

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Fig. 10

Multiblock grid topology

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Fig. 11

Experimental and numerical losses—inflow angle characteristics (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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Fig. 12

Inflow angle distribution at the three operating points (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3, L2F-measurement plane at midspan)

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Fig. 13

Isentropic Mach number distribution at OP 0, experimental (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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Fig. 14

Isentropic Mach number distribution at OP 1, experimental and numerical (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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Fig. 15

Total pressure ratio in the wake behind the cascade at OP 1, experimental and numerical (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3) (midspan)

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Fig. 16

Isentropic Mach number distribution at OP 2, experimental and numerical (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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Fig. 17

Total pressure ratio in the wake behind the cascade at OP 2, experimental and numerical (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3) (midspan)

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Fig. 18

PIV-measurement at OP 1 (midspan, M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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Fig. 19

PIV-measurement at OP 2 (midspan, M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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Fig. 20

Experimental and numerical static pressure ratio—inflow angle characteristics (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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Fig. 21

Experimental and numerical deflection–inflow angle characteristics (M1 = 0.9, AVDR = 1.3)

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