0
Research Papers

Stall Inception in a Boundary Layer Ingesting Fan

[+] Author and Article Information
D. Perovic

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: dp420@cam.ac.uk

C. A. Hall

Whittle Laboratory,
University of Cambridge,
1 JJ Thomson Avenue,
Cambridge CB3 0DY, UK
e-mail: cah1003@cam.ac.uk

E. J. Gunn

Turbostream Ltd,
3 Charles Babbage Road,
Cambridge CB3 0GT, UK

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) of ASME for publication in the Journal of Turbomachinery. Manuscript received February 11, 2019; final manuscript received April 26, 2019; published online June 12, 2019. Assoc. Editor: Kenneth Hall.

J. Turbomach 141(9), 091007 (Jun 12, 2019) (10 pages) Paper No: TURBO-19-1031; doi: 10.1115/1.4043644 History: Received February 11, 2019; Accepted April 26, 2019

Jet engines with boundary layer ingestion (BLI) could offer significant reductions in aircraft fuel burn compared with podded turbofans. However, the engine fans must run continuously with severe inlet distortion, which is known to reduce stability. In this paper, an experimental study has been completed on a low-speed rig fan operating with a BLI-type inlet distortion. Unsteady casing static pressure measurements have been made at multiple locations during stall events. Steady-state, full-annulus area traverses have also been performed at rotor inlet and exit at a near-stall operating point. The reduction in stability caused by BLI is found to be small. It is found that with BLI the fan can operate stably despite the presence of localized regions where the rotor operating point lies beyond the stability boundary measured in clean flow. With the BLI-type distortion applied, the measured rotor incidence varies around the annulus due to nonuniform upstream velocity and swirl. The measured amplitude of unsteady casing pressure fluctuations just prior to stall is found to correlate with the circumferential variation of rotor incidence, suggesting that rotor incidence is a key variable affecting the creation and growth of flow disturbances. In regions of high incidence, disturbances resembling local flow separations are initiated. However, in regions of low or negative incidence, any disturbances decay rapidly. Full rotating stall with BLI occurs when high incidence regions are widespread enough to sustain disturbances which can propagate around the entire annulus.

Copyright © 2019 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.

References

Felder, J. L., Brown, G. V., Kim, H. D., and Chu, J., 2011, “Turboelectric Distributed Propulsion in a Hybrid Wing Body,” 20th ISABE Conference, Gothenburg, Sweden, ISABE-2011-1340.
Hall, C. A., Schwartz, E., and Hileman, J. I., 2009, “Assessment of Technologies for the Silent Aircraft Initiative,” J. Propul. Power, 25(6), pp. 1153–1162. [CrossRef]
Uranga, A., Drela, M., Greitzer, E., Titchener, N., Lieu, M., Siu, N., Huang, A., Gatlin, G., and Hannon, J., 2014, “Preliminary Experimental Assessment of the Boundary Layer Ingestion Benefit for the D8 Aircraft,” 52nd AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting, National Harbor, MD, AIAA 2014-0906.
Smith, L. H., 1993, “Wake Ingestion Propulsion Benefit,” J. Propul. Power, 9(1), pp. 74–82. [CrossRef]
Day, I. J., 1993, “Stall Inception in Axial Flow Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 115(1), pp. 1–9. [CrossRef]
McDougall, N. M., Cumpsty, N. A., and Hynes, T. P., 1990, “Stall Inception in Axial Compressors,” ASME J. Turbomach., 112(1), pp. 116–123. [CrossRef]
Weichert, S., and Day, I. J., 2014, “Detailed Measurements of Spike Formation in an Axial Compressor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(5), p. 051006. [CrossRef]
Young, A. M., Day, I. J., and Pullan, G., 2013, “Stall Warning by Blade Pressure Signature Analysis,” ASME J. Turbomach., 135(1), p. 011033. [CrossRef]
Inoue, M., Kuroumarau, M., Tanino, T., Yoshida, S., and Furukawa, M., 2001, “Comparative Studies on Short and Long Length-Scale Stall Cell Propagating in an Axial Compressor Rotor,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123(1), pp. 24–32. [CrossRef]
Pullan, G., Young, A. M., Day, I. J., Greitzer, E. M., and Spakovszky, Z. S., 2015, “Origins and Structure of Spike-Type Rotating Stall,” ASME J. Turbomach., 137(5), p. 051007. [CrossRef]
Bennington, M. A., Ross, M., Cameron, J., Morris, S., Du, J., Lin, F., and Chen, J., 2010, “An Experimental and Computational Investigation of Tip Clearance Flow and its Impact on Stall Inception,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2010, Glasgow, UK, GT2010-23516.
Katz, R., 1958, “Performance of Axial Compressors With Asymmetric Inlet Flows,” PhD thesis, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA.
Reid, C., 1969, “The Response of Axial Flow Compressors to Intake Flow Distortion,” Proceedings of the Gas Turbine Products and Conference Show, Cleveland, OH, 69-GT-29.
Williams, D. D., 1986, “Review of Current Knowledge of Engine Response to Distorted Inflow Conditions,” Engine Response to Distorted Inflow Conditions, Munich, Germany, AGARD CP-400, pp. 1-1–1-32.
Longley, J. P., and Greitzer, E. M., 1992, “Inlet Distortion Effects in Aircraft Propulsion System Integration,” “ Steady and Transient Performance Prediction of Gas Turbine Engines, AGARD LS-183, pp. 6-1−6-18.
Pearson, H., and McKenzie, A. B., 1959, “Wakes in Axial Compressors,” J. Royal Aeronautical Soc., 63, pp. 415–416. [CrossRef]
Hynes, T. P., and Greitzer, E. M., 1987, “A Method for Assessing Effects of Circumferential Flow Distortion on Compressor Stability,” ASME J. Turbomach., 109(3), pp. 371–379. [CrossRef]
Longley, J. P., 1990, “Measured and Predicted Effects of Inlet Distortion on Axial Compressors,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 1990, Brussels, Belgium, 90-GT-214.
Shaw, M. J., Hield, P., and Tucker, P. G., 2013, “The Effect of Inlet Guide Vanes on Inlet Flow Distortion Transfer and Transonic Fan Stability,” ASME J. Turbomach., 136(2), p. 021015. [CrossRef]
Yao, J., Gorrell, S. E., and Wadia, A. R., 2010, “High-Fidelity Numerical Analysis of Per-Rev-Type Inlet Distortion Transfer in Multistage Fans,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(4), p. 041014. [CrossRef]
Jerez Fidalgo, V., Hall, C. A., and Colin, Y., 2012, “A Study of Fan-Distortion Interaction Within the NASA Rotor 67 Transonic Stage,” ASME J. Turbomach., 134(5), p. 051011. [CrossRef]
Mistry, C. S., and Pradeep, A. M., 2013, “Investigations on the Effect of Inflow Distortion on the Performance of a High Aspect Ratio, Low Speed Contra Rotating Fan Stage,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, San Antonio, TX, GT2013-94311.
Florea, R. V., Voytovych, D., Tillman, G., Stucky, M., Shabbir, A., Sharma, O., and Arend, D. J., 2013, “Aerodynamic Analysis of a Boundary-Layer-Ingesting Distortion-Tolerant Fan,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2013, San Antonio, TX, GT2013-94656.
Gunn, E. J., and Hall, C. A., 2014, “Aerodynamics of Boundary Layer Ingesting Fans,” Proceedings of ASME Turbo Expo 2014, Dusseldorf, Germany, GT2014-26142.
Madani, V., and Hynes, T. P., 2009, “Boundary Layer Ingesting Intakes: Design and Optimization,” Proceedings of XIX International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines, Montreal, Canada, ISABE 2009-1346.

Figures

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Meridional view of the BLI fan rig

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Measured inlet axial velocity profile at station 1 at the design operating point and angle sign convention

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Clean flow total-to-static pressure rise characteristic and key operating conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Photograph of the fan rotor showing the unsteady pressure probe locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Contour of casing static pressure at DPc

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Stall inception in clean flow: raw signal (above), low-pass filtered signal at 90% fbp (below)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Spectrogram of a casing static pressure signal around a stall event

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Cumulative energy content of a casing pressure signal before, during, and after stall. Value at frequency f shows total energy in the range [0, f].

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Fourier transform from pressure transducers at one of the circumferential locations

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Spectrograms of casing static pressure signals at DPd

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Pressure waveforms, stall inception at NSd. Dashed lines show propagations of spikes.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Spectrograms of casing static pressure signals around a stall event in distorted flow

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Comparison of the incidence relative to the NSc incidence level, disturbances energy, and the signals' standard deviations. Crosses show data from individual measurements, and averages are shown as solid lines.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Axial velocity contours (station 3): (a) axial velocity (DPd) and (b) axial velocity (NSd)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Absolute swirl angle upstream of the rotor (station 3): (a) swirl (DPd) and (b) swirl (NSd)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Incidence relative to incidence at NSc (station 3): (a) incidence (DPd) and (b) incidence (NSd)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Stall cell development, (a) waveforms, (b) schematic of early stall cell propagation, (c) stall cell size as a function of time

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

Axial velocity downstream of the rotor (station 4): (a) axial velocity (DPd) and (b) axial velocity (NSd)

Tables

Errata

Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In