This article models the dynamics of cilia-based devices (soft cantilever-type, vibrating devices that are excited by external vibrations) for mixing and manipulating liquids in microfluidic applications. The main contribution of this article is to develop a model, which shows that liquid sloshing and the added mass effect play substantial roles in generating large-amplitude motion of the cilia. Additionally, experimental results are presented to show that (i) mixing is substantially improved with the use of cilia when compared to the case without cilia and (ii) mixing with cilia can be further enhanced by using an asymmetric excitation waveform when compared to sinusoidal excitation.

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