Turbochargers with variable turbine geometry (VGT) are established in diesel engines for passenger cars because of the beneficial effect on transient operation. The variability permits the reduction of exhaust back pressure, resulting in lower fuel consumption. There are only a few applications in heavy duty truck engines due to increased mechanical complexity and vulnerability to failure.
This paper presents a turbine concept with a simple variability developed for a heavy duty engine. The variability is achieved upstream of the rotor by changing the sectional area of the volute. This can be done through a rotationally movable ring which shifts the circumferential position of the volute tongues. These separate both scrolls of a double segment turbine and can be rotated by an electric actuator.
The performance maps measured at the hot gas test stand show the large variability of the flow parameter and the high efficiency levels over the operating range of the variable asymmetric turbine (VAT).
The flow field is computed by the use of 3D-CFD simulations in order to analyze the loss-generating mechanisms that occur within the machine.
Test runs on an engine test stand demonstrate the high potential of the concept concerning reduction of fuel consumption and a wide scope of realizable EGR rates in order to reduce NOx emissions in a cost-effective way. The resultant large mass flow variability allows the deletion of the waste gate and enables efficiency improvements.