A noise reduction method for axial flow fans using a short inlet duct is proposed. The pattern of noise reduction imposed by the short inlet duct on the axial flow cooling fan under variable working conditions was experimentally and numerically examined. A 2-cm inlet duct was found to reduce tonal noise. As the tip Mach number of the fan increased from 0.049 to 0.156, the reduction in the total average sound pressure level at 1 m from the fan increased from 0.8 dB(A) to 4.3 dB(A), and further achieved 4.8 dB(A) when a 1-cm inlet duct was used. The steady computational fluid dynamics (CFD) showed that the inlet duct has little effect on the aerodynamic performance of the fan. The results of the full passage unsteady calculation at the maximum flow rate showed that the duct has a significant influence on the suction vortexes caused by the inlet flow non-uniformity. The suction vortexes move upstream to weaken the interaction with the rotor blades, which significantly reduces the pulsating pressure on the blades. The sound pressure level (SPL) at the blade passing frequency (BPF) contributed by the thrust force was calculated to reduce by 36 dB at a 135° observer angle, reflecting the rectification effect of the duct on the non-uniform inlet flow and the improvement in characteristics of the noise source. The proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) of the static pressure field on the blades verified that the main spatial mode is more uniformly distributed due to the duct, and energy owing to the rotor-inlet interaction decreases. A speed regulation strategy for the cooling fan with short inlet duct is proposed, which provides guidance for the application of this noise reduction method.