In this study the Reactive Controlled Combustion Ignition (RCCI) obtained by early port fuel injection (PFI) of n-butanol and direct injection (DI) of biodiesel were compared with in cylinder direct injected binary mixture of n-butanol and biodiesel with the same mass ratio of 3:1 in both fuelling strategies. The combustion and emissions characteristics were investigated at 5 bars IMEP at 1400 rpm. The ignition for DI of n-butanol-biodiesel binary blends showed a delay by approximately 7.5°CAD compared with the PFI case. For the binary mixture, n-butanol-biodiesel, the combustion pressure has decreased by 50% compared to the PFI of butanol. The maximum in cylinder gas temperature decreased by 100K for the n-butanol-biodiesel mixture versus ULSD#2 and has also experienced a 10° CAD delay. The premixed charge combustion has been split into two regions of high temperature heat release, an early one BTDC, and a second stage, ATDC for the PFI strategy. Increasing the load to 7.5 bars IMEP, heavy knock occurred for the PFI case. The soot emissions showed a 90% decrease with n-butanol injection PFI and by 98% reduction for DI of n-butanol binary mixture with the biodiesel, while the NOx emissions were reduced by 40% in both cases. The aldehyde emissions exhibited a significant 95% decrease for the n-butanol-biodiesel binary mixture compared with the n-butanol PFI. The mechanical efficiency at 80% and thermal efficiency and 38% were found similar, for both fuelling strategies.
The results of this work suggest that the DI of n-butanol-biodiesel binary mixtures is more effective in reducing emissions than PFI of n-butanol combined with DI of biodiesel and also less likely to produce knock.