Abstract

The well-known pictorial drafting technique of isometric drawing is here generalized in two ways, called “isoclinal” and “axial”, or collectively, “symmetric”. Although the isoclinal projection preserves the useful property of foreshortening adjacent edges equally, and the axial projection foreshortens adjacent edges equally, the directions for these projections usually differ from that for isometric projection. Formulas are derived for the isoclinal and axial directions and their foreshortening factors and rotation matrices. Although intended for three-dimensional computer-aided design, the symmetric projections can also be performed on a drawing board with a protractor. Graphic examples involving design of non-rectangular connectors for three skew structural members and adjacent plates in space are presented.

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