A few reliable low-cost flip chip assembly processes using gold bumps with NCA, ACF or ACP that involved daily mass production activities in the industry are reported in this paper. Some key issues of material selection and assembly for reliable low-cost flip chip interconnections are discussed. This paper also discusses reliable low-cost processes of flip chip on FR-4 using eutectic solder bumps with possible fewer process steps compared to the full assembly process. Some interesting results with respect to the reliability performance of the processes have been obtained.

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