This article investigates the use of femtosecond laser induced surface morphology on silicon wafer surface in water confinement. Unlike irradiation of silicon surfaces in the air, there are no laser induced periodic structures, but irregular roughness is formed when the silicon wafer is ablated under water. The unique discovery of a smoothly processed silicon surface in water confinement under certain laser parameter combinations may help improve laser direct micromachining surface quality in industrial applications.

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