An orifice type pulse tube refrigerator (OPTR) was designed, built and operated to provide cryogenic cooling. The OTPR is a travelling wave thermoacoustic refrigerator that operates on a modified reverse Stirling cycle. We consider a system that is comprised of a pressure wave generator (a linear motor), an aftercooler heat-exchanger, a regenerator (comprising of a porous structure for energy separation), a pulse tube (in lieu of a displacer piston as found in Stirling refrigerators) with a cold and a warm heat-exchanger at its two ends, a needle-type orifice valve, an inertance tube and a buffer volume. The experimental characterization is done at various values of mean pressure of helium (∼ 0.35 MPa–2.2 MPa), amplitude of pressure oscillations, frequency of operation and size of orifice opening. A detailed time-dependent axisymmetric computational fluid dynamic (CFD) model of the OPTR is simulated to predict the performance of the OPTR. In the CFD model, the continuity, momentum and energy equations are solved for both the refrigerant gas (helium) and the porous media regions (the regenerator and the three heat-exchangers) in the OPTR. An accurate representation of heat transfer in the porous media is achieved by employing a thermal non-equilibrium model to couple the gas and solid (porous media) energy equations. In the future, a validated computational model can be used for system improvement and optimization.

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