In metal cutting, some of the generated forces do not contribute to chip formation. These forces are referred to as plowing forces and are induced mainly as result of the finite sharpness of the tool (cutting edge radius) and the tool’s land (flank). Determining the magnitude of these forces is essential to developing a better understanding of the mechanics and physics of applications that involve cutting at minimal feed values (e.g., micro-machining and vibration-assisted-micro-machining. It is well recognized that plowing forces increase with tool wear. This research estimates these forces by employing analytical and numerical simulations. An extensive experimental analysis is utilized to verify the simulated values of the plowing forces. The experimental verification is designed to measure these forces as a function of several cutting parameters. The developed methodology relates the plowing forces to geometric factors and process parameters such as cutting-edge radius, tool feed, and cutting speed.

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