The Ormen Lange offshore pipelines from shore to the field go through very difficult terrain creating freespans in the range 40–80m for the 30” lines. For the 6” lines long freespans will be present prior to burial and vortex induced vibrations (VIV) will give a contribution during laying due to strong currents. Using existing codes for fatigue calculation was giving too conservative results compared to the welding technology used and experience from SCR work showed that better S-N data should be expected. A dedicated program was started as part of the Ormen Lange (OL) technology verification program overseen by Norwegian Authorities. An overview of the results is presented here. A full evaluation of the data is not yet complete. Papers will be published later presenting the full technical details and dataprocessing. Fatigue test results from the OL pipeline fatigue verification are presented focusing on the following topics: • Defect sizes in pipeline production welds; • Contractor-A: 5G welding position; • Contractor-B: 2G welding position; • 6” pipe full scale testing; • 30” pipe full scale testing; • Residual stresses; • Crack growth tests and sector specimen fatigue tests in production environments. The following are a summary of the main test variables in the program: • Mapping of actual welding defects compared to AUT results. • Welds with varying misalignment (high/low) and lack of penetration (LOP) from installation contractors tested in air. • Welds with natural welding defects in internal environment (Condensed water and formation water). • Welds with notches made by electrical discharge machining (EDM) (2×65mm and 2×15mm) in internal environment (condensed water and formation water). • Crack growth tests using large compact tension (CT) specimens in air, seawater and internal product environments (condensed water and formation water). • Full scale tests including worst case high/low, LOPs, and tests with normal welds including repair welds. The following main conclusions can be drawn from the work: • Small scale testing with representative worst case defects predicts well large scale testing results with the same features when the small scale specimen stresses are corrected for bending moments etc. arising from the cutout of the pipe. • Full scale testing of 30”×35.5mm wall thickness 2G pipes welded continuously (without start/stop) with worst case defects and high/low exceeds the D curve. • Full-scale tests of 30”×35.5mm wall thickness 5G non continuous welds with worst case defects and high/low exceeds the E curve. • Pipe welds showed low or even compressive residual stresses in the root. For continuously welded pipes the stress levels were low but more varying, also on the cap side. This partly explains the good results. • It is verified that the fatigue loads during operation are below the threshold of crack growth, and thus fatigue will not be a probable failure mechanism. This is under the condition that the measurements of vortex induced vibrations (VIV) during operation confirm the engineering calculations.
- Ocean, Offshore, and Arctic Engineering Division
Development of Fatigue Design Data for the Ormen Lange Offshore Project: An Overview
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Knagenhjelm, HO, O̸rjasæter, O, & Haagensen, PJ. "Development of Fatigue Design Data for the Ormen Lange Offshore Project: An Overview." Proceedings of the 25th International Conference on Offshore Mechanics and Arctic Engineering. Volume 3: Safety and Reliability; Materials Technology; Douglas Faulkner Symposium on Reliability and Ultimate Strength of Marine Structures. Hamburg, Germany. June 4–9, 2006. pp. 481-494. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2006-92152
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