Offshore industry has evolved to meet numerous challenges, e.g. deep water, high currents, high pressure and high temperature (HPHT), and sour reservoirs, facing deepwater exploration. The trend in flowline specifications for deepwater offshore fields is a consequence of complex oil-gas field conditions, such as HPHT and developments in design criteria (i.e. limit state design), welding and laying technologies. The technological evolution exhibits a trend towards an increasing wall thickness (WT) to provide sufficient resistance for the very high operating pressures. Furthermore, the pipelay operations, especially when linepipes are installed by means of the reel laying method, cause repeated plastic bending and straightening deformation cycles. These cyclic loads affect final material stress-strain properties. Reeling is currently applied to an increasing range of pipe geometries, being the present limit given by pipes with 16″ outer diameter (OD) and 30 mm wall thickness (WT). Other pipeline installation techniques, for example, J-lay, S-lay and steep S-lay also introduce plastic strain. All previous factors mentioned before and adding one more variable when exploring and producing in regions alike to the Artic where low temperatures implied several material challenges calls for high performance seamless pipes tailored to the specific application required by the oil and gas industry. In this paper, a description is given of the results of latest fundamental studies on high-strength heavy-wall steel materials manufactured by Q&T processing. This work is part of an on-going development program on high performance heavy wall seamless pipes for special applications such as HPHT, low temperature design criteria, sour requirements and studying the material under the strain based design criteria involving metallurgical modeling, laboratory tests, industrial trials and advanced metallographic examinations. The most recent findings and overall conclusions are reported hereafter, these results have been exploited by Tenaris to manufacture a limited production seamless pipes in a wall thickness range from 40 mm to 48 mm in steel grade X65 Sour Service.
Ultra Heavy Wall Linepipe X65 for the Most Stringent Applications: Metallurgical Design and Industrial Development
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Izquierdo, A, Quintanilla, H, Richard, G, Garcia, E, Armengol, M, Novelli, P, Di Vito, L, Porcu, G, Mannucci, G, Anelli, E, & Mannucci, A. "Ultra Heavy Wall Linepipe X65 for the Most Stringent Applications: Metallurgical Design and Industrial Development." Proceedings of the ASME 2009 28th International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Volume 3: Pipeline and Riser Technology. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA. May 31–June 5, 2009. pp. 69-75. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2009-79153
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