Ewans and Jonathan  shows that characteristics of extreme storm severity in the northern North Sea vary with storm direction. Jonathan et al.  demonstrates, when directional effects are present, that omnidirectional return values should be estimated using a directional extreme value model. Omnidirectional return values so calculated are different in general to those estimated using a model which incorrectly assumes stationarity with respect to direction. The extent of directional variability of extreme storm severity depends on a number of physical factors, including fetch variability. Our ability to assess directional variability of extreme value parameters and return values also improves with increasing sample size in general. In this work, we estimate directional extreme value models for samples of hindcast storm peak significant wave height from locations in ocean basins worldwide, for a range of physical environments, sample sizes and periods of observation. At each location, we compare distributions of omnidirectional 100-year return values estimated using a directional model, to those (incorrectly) estimated assuming stationarity. The directional model for peaks over threshold of storm peak significant wave height is estimated using a non-homogeneous point process model as outlined in Randell et al. . Directional models for extreme value threshold (using quantile regression), rate of occurrence of threshold exceedances (using a Poisson model), and size of exceedances (using a generalised Pareto model) are estimated. Model parameters are described as smooth functions of direction using periodic B-splines. Parameter estimation is performed using maximum likelihood estimation penalised for parameter roughness. A bootstrap re-sampling procedure, encompassing all inference steps, quantifies uncertainties in, and dependence structure of, parameter estimates and omnidirectional return values.
Omnidirectional Return Values for Storm Severity From Directional Extreme Value Models: The Effect of Physical Environment and Sample Size
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Randell, D, Zanini, E, Vogel, M, Ewans, K, & Jonathan, P. "Omnidirectional Return Values for Storm Severity From Directional Extreme Value Models: The Effect of Physical Environment and Sample Size." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Volume 4A: Structures, Safety and Reliability. San Francisco, California, USA. June 8–13, 2014. V04AT02A013. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2014-23156
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