Rubble ice in unconsolidated part of ice ridges or rubble fields for some engineering applications can be considered as a granular material. The common practice is to assume that the ice rubble obeys Mohr-Coulomb failure criterion which requires cohesion and internal friction angle as material parameters (see e.g. ). In order to obtain friction angle of ice rubble in small scale a bi-axial compression apparatus was proposed by Timco et al. . Later, analyzing test results obtained from this apparatus Timco and Cornett  made a rather surprising conclusion that the ice rubble angle of friction is not a constant but has different values for different ratios of strains applied to the sample. This paper gives an overview of biaxial compression data available in the literature. It also shows that if volumetric behavior is included (which is not the case for Mohr-Coulomb criterion) then tests performed on the same types of ice rubble gives the same constant describing shearing resistance independent of applied boundary conditions.
- Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering Division
Study of the Volumetric Behaviour of Ice Rubble Based on Bi-Axial Compression Data
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Kulyakhtin, S, & Høyland, KV. "Study of the Volumetric Behaviour of Ice Rubble Based on Bi-Axial Compression Data." Proceedings of the ASME 2014 33rd International Conference on Ocean, Offshore and Arctic Engineering. Volume 10: Polar and Arctic Science and Technology. San Francisco, California, USA. June 8–13, 2014. V010T07A027. ASME. https://doi.org/10.1115/OMAE2014-23798
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