Ships performing their missions in the polar regions will inevitably suffer from sea ice collision, which will lead to structural safety problems. Therefore, ships should be designed according to the characteristics of polar sea ice to enable them to navigate safely in the polar regions. Based on the probability density curve of sea ice thickness and the occurrence frequency of sea ices of different sizes of the Kara Sea and the Barents Sea, this paper preliminarily designs ship’s bow sailing in the Kara Sea and the Barents Sea, establishes the ship’s bow-ice collision model and carries out numerical simulation to obtain the stress distribution. Then it optimizes the structure of the parts of the ship’s bow. After the optimization, the bow structure meets the strength requirements and the weight of the ship’s bow is relatively light.