In recent years, there have been a number of fire and explosion accidents of hydrogen storage vessels in hydrogen stations all over the world. China is vigorously developing the hydrogen fuel cell vehicle industry. At present, more than 80 hydrogen refueling stations have been built, and 1000 hydrogen refueling stations are planned to be built in 2025. In order to study the response law and pressure relief requirements of hydrogen storage vessels in hydrogen refueling stations under fire condition, fire tests of hydrogen storage vessels filled with high pressure hydrogen is planning to carry out. In this paper, numerical simulation of fire tests of hydrogen storage vessels was carried out. The hydrogen storage vessel is a horizontal single-layer seamless structure with working pressure of 45 MPa, wall thickness of 35.4 mm, volume of 205 L and material of 4130X. Propane is used as fuel for fire test. Based on CFD software, the thermal structural response calculation model of the hydrogen storage vessel under fire condition was established. The response law of hydrogen temperature rise and pressure rise in the hydrogen storage vessel was analyzed, and the influence of filling medium, filling pressure and ambient temperature on the hydrogen storage vessel was studied. The research results provide technical guidance for the subsequent fire test of the hydrogen storage vessels.