An estimated 82.6 million American adults live with one or more forms of cardiovascular disease and in past years, it was the cause of over 55% of all deaths in the United States, more than any other type of major disease [1]. With a limited number of available donors, heart transplants are seldom an option. As a result, ventricular assist devices (VADs) have become a viable alternative to immediate transplant. Today, VADs are widely used as bridge-to-recovery, bridge-to-transplant and destination therapy devices. Despite past improvements in VAD design, a major complication that continues to arise is thrombus formation within the pump.

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