Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stromal cells that reside in the bone marrow and differentiate into connective cell lines, such as adipocytes and osteoblasts [1]. An appropriate balance of MSC differentiation toward adipocytes and osteoblasts is vital to bone homeostasis [6]. In vitro work demonstrates that differentiation of MSCs is influenced by mechanical stimuli [2, 3]. In a mouse model, the ratio of adipocytes to MSCs in the marrow was 19% lower compared to controls following treatment by low magnitude mechanical signals (LMMS) [4]. In mice, LMMS increased MSC number by 46% and the differentiation capacity of MSCs was biased towards osteoblastic compared to adipogenic differentiation [5]. Thus, mechanobiological stimuli may play an important role in maintaining balanced MSC differentiation.

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