Although needle-based surgeries are considered as minimally invasive surgeries, the damage caused by the needle insertion in soft tissues, namely brain needs to be reduced. Any minor damage, swelling or bleeding in the brain tissue can lead to a long-lasting traumatic brain injury. Our approach to this challenge is to search for a proper solution in nature such as honeybees. In our previous studies, some new bioinspired needles (passive/active) mimicking honeybee stingers have been proposed and tested by conducting needle insertion tests in tissue gel phantoms. The main feature of the bioinspired needles is specially-design barbs on the needle structures. It was discovered that the insertion forces of the bioinspired needles are decreased by as much as 35%, which means that there is a decrease in tissue gel phantom damages. It was also observed that the needle path deflection in the tissue was greatly affected by the reduction in needle bending stiffness and the insertion force. The reduction in the bending stiffness would require lower forces of Nitinol actuators to navigate our smart/active needle inside the tissues. This work specifically aims to investigate the mechanics of the bioinspired needles in bovine brain tissues. The needle insertion tests in real tissues are designed and performed. The insertion mechanics of the bioinspired needles in bovine brain is studied and presented.

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