Physics of Hot Crossflow Ingestion in Film Cooling

[+] Author and Article Information
E. L. McGrath, J. H. Leylek

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Clemson University, Clemson, SC 29634

J. Turbomach 121(3), 532-541 (Jul 01, 1999) (10 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2841348 History: Received February 01, 1998; Online January 29, 2008


Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is used to isolate the flow physics responsible for hot crossflow ingestion, a phenomenon that can cause failure of a film cooled gas turbine component. In the gas turbine industry, new compound-angle shaped hole (CASH) geometries are currently being developed to decrease the heat transfer coefficient and increase the adiabatic effectiveness on film cooled surfaces. These new CASH geometries can have unexpected flow patterns that result in hot crossflow ingestion at the film hole. This investigation examines a 15 deg forward-diffused film hole injected streamwise at 35 deg with a compound angle of 60 deg (FDIFF60) and with a length-to-diameter ratio (L/D) of 4.0. Qualitative and quantitative aspects of computed results agreed well with measurements, thus lending credibility to predictions. The FDIFF60 configuration is a good representative of a typical CASH geometry, and produces flow mechanisms that are characteristic of CASH film cooling. FDIFF60 has been shown to have impressive downstream film cooling performance, while simultaneously having undesirable ingestion at the film hole. In addition to identifying the physical mechanisms driving ingestion, this paper documents the effects on ingestion of the blowing ratio, the density ratio, and the film hole Reynolds number over realistic gas turbine ranges of 0.5 to 1.88, 1.6 to 2.0, and 17,350 to 70,000, respectively. The results of this study show that hot crossflow ingestion is caused by a combination of coolant blockage at the film hole exit plane and of crossflow boundary layer vorticity that has been re-oriented streamwise by the presence of jetting coolant. Ingestion results when this re-oriented vorticity passes over the blocked region of the film hole. The density ratio and the film hole Reynolds number do not have a significant effect on ingestion over the ranges studied, but the blowing ratio has a surprising nonlinear effect. Another important result of this study is that the blockage of coolant hampers convection and allows diffusion to transfer heat into the film hole even when ingestion is not present. This produces both an undesirable temperature gradient and high temperature level on the film hole wall itself. Lessons learned about the physics of ingestion are generalized to arbitrary CASH configurations. The systematic computational methodology currently used has been previously documented and has become a standard for ensuring accurate results. The methodology includes exact modeling of flow physics, proper modeling of the geometry including the crossflow, plenum, and film hole regions, a high quality mesh for grid independent results, second order discretization, and the two-equation k–ε turbulence model with generalized wall functions. The steady, Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations are solved using a fully elliptic and fully implicit pressure-correction solver with multiblock unstructured and adaptive grid capability and with multigrid convergence acceleration.

Copyright © 1999 by The American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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