Transition on Concave Surfaces

[+] Author and Article Information
Antonis Dris, Mark W. Johnson

Department of Engineering, University of Liverpool, Liverpool L69 3GH, UK

J. Turbomach 127(3), 507-511 (Mar 01, 2004) (5 pages) doi:10.1115/1.1861914 History: Received October 01, 2003; Revised March 01, 2004

Boundary layer measurements have been made on the concave surfaces of two constant curvature blades using hot wire anemometry. All the current experiments were performed with negligible streamwise pressure gradient. Grids were used to produce a range of freestream turbulence levels between 1% and 4%. The freestream velocity increases with distance from a concave wall according to the free vortex condition making the determination of the boundary layer edge difficult. A flat plate equivalent boundary layer procedure was adopted, therefore, to overcome this problem. The Taylor–Goertler (TG) vortices resulting from the concave curvature were found to make the laminar and turbulent boundary layer profiles fuller and to increase the skin friction coeffiicent by up to 40% compared with flat plate values. This leads to a more rapid growth in boundary layer thickness. The evolution in the intermittency through transition is very similar to that for a flat plate, however, the shape factors are depressed slightly throughout the flow due to the fuller velocity profiles. For all the current experiments, curvature promoted transition. This was very marked at low freestream turbulence level but remained significant even at the highest levels. It appears that the velocity fluctuations associated with the TG vortices enhance the freestream turbulence resulting in a higher effective turbulence level. A new empirical correlation for start of transition based on this premise is presented. The ratio of end to start of transition momentum thickness Reynolds numbers was found to be approximately constant.

Copyright © 2005 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Schematic of concave blade working section

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Figure 2

Measured and flat plate equivalent boundary layer profiles

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Figure 3

Boundary layer profiles through transition

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Figure 4

Laminar boundary layer development

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Figure 5

Skin friction coefficient development through transition

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Figure 6

Comparison of skin friction coeffiecient with the flat plate value for laminar flow

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Figure 7

Comparison of skin friction coefficient with flat plate value for turbulent flow

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Figure 8

Variation in the near wall turbulence level through transition

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Figure 9

Shape factor variation through transition

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Figure 10

Intermittency evolution

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Figure 11

Start of transition

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Figure 12

End of transition



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