Aerodesign and Testing of an Aeromechanically Highly Loaded LP Turbine

[+] Author and Article Information
F. J. Malzacher, J. Gier, F. Lippl

 MTU Aero Engines, 80995 München, Germany

J. Turbomach 128(4), 643-649 (Dec 19, 2003) (7 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2172646 History: Received November 10, 2003; Revised December 19, 2003

Future turbo systems for aircraft engines need very compact geometry, low weight, and high efficiency components. The geared turbofan enables the engine designer to decouple the speed of the fan and the LP turbine to combine a low speed fan with a high speed LP turbine. The low pressure turbine is a key component for this concept. The technological challenge is very much driven by the very high low-spool speed. Resulting as well from high inlet temperatures, the LP turbine needs cooling of the first stage. A new MTU LPT concept for such a high speed turbine has been developed and tested in a turbine rig. The concept consists of a two-stage turbine for extremely high speed and high stage pressure ratio (ER 2.3). This leads to extra high mechanical loading and an exotic combination of high Mach numbers (transonic) and very low Reynolds numbers. In this paper some design features are described. Some elements of the airfoil design were also tested in additional cascade tests. The two-stage turbine was tested at the Altitude Test Facility of the ILA, Stuttgart. The test setup is described including details of the instrumentation. Test data shows a good turbine performance. Measurements are also compared to 3D CFD, which is used to analyze local effects.

Copyright © 2006 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

LP turbine aero loading pressure ratio versus stage count

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Figure 2

Exotic combination of Mach and Reynolds numbers in the last blade

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Figure 3

LP turbine mechanical loading

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Figure 4

Smith loading diagram

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Figure 5

Relation efficiency=f (speed; blade height)

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Figure 6

Side view of second blade with area taper

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Figure 7

Comparison of typical pressure distributions for conventional LPT, high speed LPT, and HPT

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Figure 8

Measured and computed airfoil pressure distribution in the T132 cascade at nominal conditions

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Figure 9

Comparison of Schlieren picture (experiment) and numerical solution of T132, Re2th≈60,000; Maex≈0.8; Tuin≈1.5%

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Figure 10

Cascade T133 Schlieren picture (density), Re2th≈65,000; Maex>1.0; Tuin≈1.5%

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Figure 11

Test facility with installed cold flow rig

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Figure 12

Test rig with measurement positions

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Figure 13

Turbine characteristic for several speeds

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Figure 14

Pressure distribution on vane 2 mid-span

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Figure 15

Flow visualization for second vane, comparison of color injection, and numerical simulation

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Figure 16

Normalized cavity pressures measurement versus 3D CFD

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Figure 17

LP turbine 3D-CFD model including cavities

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Figure 18

LP turbine component radial efficiency distribution with and without cavities (1mm radial clearance)



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