Technology Reviews

Mixed Flow Turbine Research: A Review

[+] Author and Article Information
Srithar Rajoo

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdomsrithar.rajoo@imperial.ac.uk

Ricardo Martinez-Botas

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ, United Kingdomr.botas@imperial.ac.uk

J. Turbomach 130(4), 044001 (Jun 27, 2008) (12 pages) doi:10.1115/1.2812326 History: Received March 28, 2006; Revised July 17, 2007; Published June 27, 2008

Research on mixed flow turbines spans over 50years with substantial literature available in the public domain. Mixed flow turbines were initially used as an alternative rotor design for gas turbines and later extended to automotive turbocharger applications. The characteristics of a mixed flow turbine resemble a radial turbine but with some significant performance improvements, giving this design an edge to satisfy the ever increasing demand in the automotive sector. The initial research focus was mainly experimental but in recent years, there have been significant contributions in computational analysis. This paper is intended to provide readers with a comprehensive review of the past and present research into the design, performance, and use of mixed flow turbines. Additionally, the future research direction of the mixed flow turbine is discussed in view of the current turbocharger and automotive demand.

Copyright © 2008 by American Society of Mechanical Engineers
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Figure 1

Velocity ratio variation with blade inlet relative (β) and absolute (α) angles

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Figure 2

Efficiency of axial, radial, and mixed flow turbines against [(a) and (b)] velocity ratio and (c) specific speed adapted from Refs. 4-5, respectively

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Figure 3

Schematic description of radial and mixed flow turbines

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Figure 4

Radial and mixed flow turbine passage velocities (7) and meridional flow separation (8)

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Figure 5

Mixed flow blade configurations and the rotor’s 3D view

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Figure 6

Inter-relations of mixed flow turbine leading edge defining angles

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Figure 7

Effect of inlet relative flow angle on turbine loading

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Figure 8

Efficiency versus loading coefficient of a mixed flow and a radial turbine

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Figure 9

Mass flow improvement of mixed flow turbine at various pressure ratios (9)

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Figure 10

Mixed flow turbine efficiency (10,13)

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Figure 11

Diesel engine performance with turbocharger on a radial and a mixed flow turbine (12)

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Figure 12

Turbocharger speed and boost with radial and mixed flow turbines (15)

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Figure 13

Mixed flow turbine instantaneous efficiency for a complete pulse cycle during unsteady flow (22)

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Figure 14

Incidence angle contour at the mixed flow rotor leading edge measured with laser doppler velocimetry (29)

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Figure 15

Flow separation due to inlet flow condition and Coriolis force

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Figure 16

Relative helicity in the mixed flow rotor blade passage at 20% chord (31)

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Figure 18

Validation agreement between predicted and experimental unsteady pressure profiles in the volute (32)

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Figure 17

Streamwise vorticity comparison between mixed flow and radial turbines at 20% chord (8)

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Figure 19

Mixed flow turbine efficiency with fixed and variable geometry operations (36)

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Figure 20

Straight nozzle vane applied to (a) radial turbine and (b) mixed flow turbine

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Figure 21

Possible options of nozzle vane for mixed flow turbine: (a) vane with inclined hub/shroud surface and (b) vane with flat hub/shroud surface

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Figure 22

Numerical calculation of turbine power over one pulse period with different operations



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