Research Papers

Impact of Severe Temperature Distortion on Turbine Efficiency

[+] Author and Article Information
Paul F. Beard, Thomas Povey

Department Engineering Science,
University of Oxford,
Parks Road,
Oxford, OX1 3 PJ, UK

Andy Smith

Rolls-Royce PLC,
Turbine Systems,
PCF-1, P.O. Box 31,
Moor Lane,
Derby, DE24 8BJ, UK

1Corresponding author.

Contributed by the International Gas Turbine Institute (IGTI) Division of ASME for publication in the JOURNAL OF TURBOMACHINERY. Manuscript received July 11, 2011; final manuscript received August 15, 2011; published online October 30, 2012. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(1), 011018 (Oct 30, 2012) (12 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1117; doi: 10.1115/1.4006389 History: Received July 11, 2011; Revised August 15, 2011

This paper presents an experimental and computational study of the effect of severe inlet temperature distortion (hot streaks) on the efficiency of the MT1 HP turbine, which is a highly-loaded unshrouded transonic design. The experiments were performed in the Oxford Turbine Research Facility (OTRF) (formerly the TTF at QinetiQ Farnborough): an engine scale, short duration, rotating transonic facility, in which M, Re, Tgas/Twall and N/T01 are matched to engine conditions. The research formed part of the EU Turbine Aero-Thermal External Flows (TATEF II) program. An advanced second generation temperature distortion simulator was developed for this investigation, which allows both radial and circumferential temperature profiles to be simulated. A pronounced profile was used for this study. The system was novel in that it was designed to be compatible with an efficiency measurement system which was also developed for this study. To achieve low uncertainty (bias and precision errors of approximately 1.5% and 0.2% respectively, to 95% confidence), the mass flow rate of the hot and cold streams used to simulate temperature distortion were independently metered upstream of the turbine nozzle using traceable measurement techniques. Turbine power was measured directly with an accurate torque transducer. The efficiency of the test turbine was evaluated experimentally for a uniform inlet temperature condition, and with pronounced temperature distortion. Mechanisms for observed changes in the turbine exit flow field and efficiency are discussed. The data are compared in terms of flow structure to full stage computational fluid dynamics (CFD) performed using the Rolls Royce Hydra code.

© 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Dorney, D. J., Gundy-Burlet, K. L., and Sondak, D. L., 1999, “A Survey of Hot-Streak Experiments and Simulations,” Int. J. Turbo Jet Engines, 16, pp. 1–15. [CrossRef]
Povey, T., Chana, K. S., Jones, T. V., and Hurrion, J., 2007, “The Effect of Hot-Streaks on HP Vane Surface and Endwall Heat Transfer: An Experimental and Numerical Study,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129, pp. 32–43. [CrossRef]
Povey, T., and Qureshi, M. I., 2009, “Developments on Hot-Streak Simulators for Turbine Testing,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131(3), p. 031009. [CrossRef]
Butler, T. L., Sharma, O. P., Joslyn, H. D., and Dring, R. P., 1989, “Redistribution of an Inlet Temperature Distortion in an Axial Flow Turbine Stage,” J. Propul. Power, 5(1), pp. 64–71. [CrossRef]
Munk, M., and Prim, R. C., 1947, “On the Multiplicity of Steady Gas Flows Having the Same Streamwise Pattern,” Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 33, pp. 137–141. [CrossRef] [PubMed]
Kerrebrock, J. L., and Mikolajczak, A. A., 1970, “Intra-Stator Transport of Rotor Wakes and Its Effects on Compressor Performance,” J. Eng. Phys., 92(4), pp. 359–368. [CrossRef]
Hawthorne, W. R., 1974, “Secondary Vorticity in Stratified Compressible Fluids in Rotating Systems,” University of Cambridge Department of Engineering, Cambridge, UK, Paper No. CUED/ATurbo/TR63.
Shang, T., Guenette, G. R., Epstein, A. H., and Saxer, A. P., 1995, “The Influence of Inlet Temperature Distortion on Rotor Heat Transfer in a Transonic Turbine,” 31st AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference and Exhibit, San Diego, CA, July 10–12, AIAA Paper No. 95-3042.
Shang, T., and Epstein, A. H., 1997, “Analysis of Hot Streak Effects on Turbine Rotor Heat Load,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 544–553. [CrossRef]
Chana, K. S., and Jones, T. V., 2002, “An Investigation on Turbine Tip and Shroud Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. GT-2002-30554. [CrossRef]
Povey, T., Chana, K. S., and Jones, T.V., 2003, “Heat Transfer Measurement on an Intermediate Pressure Nozzle Vane Tested in a Rotating Annular Turbine Facility, and the Modifying Effects of a Non-Uniform Inlet Temperature Profile,” Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng., Part A, 217, pp. 421–431. [CrossRef]
Qureshi, M. I., Povey, T., Smith, A., and Chana, K. S., 2012, “Effect of Temperature Nonuniformity on Heat Transfer in an Unshrouded Transonic HP Turbine: An Experimental and Computational Investigation,” J. Turbomach., 134(1), p. 011005. [CrossRef]
Jones, T. V., Schultz, D. L., and Hendley, A., 1973, “On the Flow in an Isentropic Light Piston Facility,” Ministry of Defence, Aeronautical Research Council, R & M Paper No. 3731.
Goodisman, M. I., Oldfield, M. L. G., Kingcombe, R. C., Jones, T. V., Ainsworth, R. W., and Brooks, A. J., 1992, “An Axial Turbobrake,” ASME J. Turbomach., 114, pp. 419–425. [CrossRef]
Povey, T., and Qureshi, M. I., 2008, “A Hot-Streak (Combustor) Simulator Suited to Aerodynamic Performance Measurements,” J. Aerosp. Eng., 222(6), pp. 205–220. [CrossRef]
Beard, P. F., Povey, T., and Chana, K. S., 2009, “Turbine Efficiency Measurement Systems for the QinetiQ Turbine Test Facility,” ASME J. Turbomach., 132(1), p. 011002. [CrossRef]
Beard, P. F., Povey, T., and Smith, A., 2011, “Efficiency of an Unshrouded Transonic HP Turbine: Experimental Measurements in a Short Duration Facility and CFD Predictions,” IMechE Conf. Trans., (submitted).
Beard, P. F., and Povey, T., 2011, “Direct Shaft Torque Measurement in a Transient Turbine Facility,” Meas. Sci. Technol., 22(3), p. 035107. [CrossRef]
Beard, P. F., Povey, T., and Ireland, P. T., 2008, “Mass Flow Rate Measurement in a Transonic Test Facility With Temperature Distortion and Swirl,” Flow Meas. Instrum., 19(5), pp. 315–324. [CrossRef]
Chana, K. S., and Hilditch, M. A., 1995, “A Summary Datum Un-Cooled Measurements of the MT1 Single Stage High-Pressure Turbine in the DRA Pyestock Isentropic Light Piston Facility,” IMT Area 3 Turbine Project Report Nos. AER2-CT92-0044 and DRA/AS/PTD/TR95046/1.
Qureshi, I., Beretta, A., and Povey, T., 2010, “Effect of Simulated Combustor Temperature Nonuniformity on HP Vane and Endwall Heat Transfer: An Experimental and Computational Investigation,” ASME J. Eng. Gas Turbines Power, 133(3), p. 031901. [CrossRef]
Atkins, N. A., and Ainsworth, R. W., 2007, “Turbine Aerodynamic Performance Measurement Under Non-Adiabatic Conditions,” ASME Paper No. GT2007-27143. [CrossRef]
Lapworth, B. L., 2004, “HYDRA-CFD: A Framework for Collaborative CFD Development,” International Conference on Scientific and Engineering Computation IC-SEC 2004, Singapore, June 30–July 2.
Pianko, M., and Wazelt, F., 1983, “Suitable Averaging-Techniques in Non-Uniform Internal Flows,” AGARD Advisory Report No. AGARD-AR-182.
Povey, T., Sharpe, M., and Rawlinson, A., 2011, “Experimental Measurements of Gas Turbine Flow Capacity Using a Novel Transient Technique,” ASME J. Turbomach., 133(1), p. 011005. [CrossRef]
Benner, M. W., Sjolander, S. A., and Moustapha, S. H., 1997, “Influence of Leading-Edge Geometry on Profile Losses in Turbines at Off-Design Incidence: Experimental Results and an Improved Correlation,” ASME J. Turbomach., 119, pp. 193–200. [CrossRef]
Kacker, S. C., and Okapuu, U., 1982, “A Mean Line Prediction Method for Axial Flow Turbine Efficiency,” ASME J. Eng. Power, 104, pp. 111–119. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

Measured stage inlet temperature profile with: (a) uniform inlet conditions, (b) inlet hot-streak generation

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

The Oxford Turbine Research Facility (OTRF)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Enthalpy-entropy chart showing isentropic and nonadiabatic turbine expansions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Vane and rotor computational meshes

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

Rotor exit near plane area-survey results of total pressure, p03, with inlet hot-streaks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

Rotor exit far plane area-survey results of total pressure, p04, with inlet hot-streaks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Distributions of NGV surface isentropic Mach number with and without inlet temperature distortion

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Radial analysis of the effect of inlet temperature distortion on vane capacity

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Measured capacity of modern HP vane [25]

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

Computed profiles of vane inlet and exit total temperature, and computed changes in vane exit whirl angle and Mach number with inlet hot-streaks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

Calculated differences in radial work function distribution with inlet hot-streaks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

Attenuation of radial temperature profile by work extraction and flow redistribution/mixing

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

Predicted impact of off-design incidence on rotor performance with EOTDF—differences plotted as changes from case with uniform inlet conditions

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

Generation of streamwise vorticity by gradients in rotor inlet flow-field

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

Computed NGV isentropic Mach number distributions at 50% span with and without inlet hot-streaks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

Computed changes in relative total temperature at rotor inlet with inlet hot-streaks

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

Computed changes in relative total pressure at rotor inlet with inlet hot-streaks



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In