Research Papers

Three-Dimensional RANS Prediction of Gas-Side Heat Transfer Coefficients on Turbine Blade and Endwall

[+] Author and Article Information
Hee-Koo Moon

Solar Turbines Incorporated,
A Caterpillar Company,
San Diego, CA 92101

Manuscript received November 27 2011; final manuscript received December 15 2011; published online November 1, 2012. Editor: David Wisler.

J. Turbomach 135(2), 021005 (Nov 01, 2012) (11 pages) Paper No: TURBO-11-1249; doi: 10.1115/1.4006642 History: Received November 27, 2011; Revised December 15, 2011

This paper presents a study using 3D computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based on Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations to predict turbine gas-side heat transfer coefficients (HTC) on the entire airfoil and endwall. The CFD results at different spanwise sections and endwall have been compared with the flat-plate turbulent boundary layer correlation and with the data in a NASA turbine rotor passage with strong secondary flows, under three different flow conditions. The enhancement effects of secondary flow vortices on the blade surface and endwall heat transfer rate have been examined in detail. Analyses were conducted for the impact of Reynolds number and exit Mach number on heat transfer. The SST, k-ɛ, V2F, and realizable k-ɛ turbulence models have been assessed. The classical log-law wall-functions have been found to be comparable to the wall-integration methods but with much reduced sensitivity to inlet turbulence conditions. The migration of hot gas was simulated with a radial profile of inlet temperature. CFD results for mid-span HTCs of two other airfoils were also compared with test data. Overall, results are encouraging and indicate improved HTC and temperature predictions from 3D CFD could help optimize the design of turbine cooling schemes.

Copyright © 2013 by ASME
Your Session has timed out. Please sign back in to continue.


Simon, T. W., and Piggush, J. D., 2006, “Turbine Endwall Aerodynamics and Heat Transfer,” J. Propul. Power, 22(2), pp. 301–312. [CrossRef]
Goldstein, R. J., and Spores, R. A., 1988, “Turbulent Transport on the Endwall in the Region Between Adjacent Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Heat Transfer, 110, pp. 862–869. [CrossRef]
Giel, P. W., Thurman, D. R., Van Fossen, G. J., Hippensteele, S. A., and Boyle, R. J., 1998, “Endwall Heat Transfer Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade,” ASME J. Turbomach., 120, pp. 305–313. [CrossRef]
Giel, P. W., Van Fossen, G. J., Boyle, R. J., Thurman, D. R., and Civinskas, K. C., 1999, “Blade Heat Transfer Measurements and Predictions in a Transonic Turbine Cascade,” ASME Paper No. 99-GT-125.
Radomsky, R. A., and Thole, K. A., 2000, “High Freestream Turbulence Effects on Endwall Heat Transfer for a Gas Turbine Stator Vane,” ASME Paper No. 2000-GT-0201.
Dunn, M. G., 2001, “Convective Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics in Axial Flow Turbines,” ASME J. Turbomach., 123, pp. 637–686. [CrossRef]
Medic, G., and Durbin, P. A., 2002, “Toward Improved Prediction of Heat Transfer on Turbine Blades,” ASME J. Turbomach., 124, pp. 187–192. [CrossRef]
Hermanson, K., Kern, S., Picker, G., and Parneix, S., 2002, “Predictions of External Heat Transfer for Turbine Vanes and Blades With Secondary Flowfields,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30206.
Ameri, A. A., and Ajmani, K., 2004, “Evaluation of Predicted Heat Transfer on a Transonic Blade Using v2-f Models,” ASME Paper No. GT2004-53572.
Tolpadi, A. K., Tallman, J. A., and El-Gabry, L., 2005, “Turbine Airfoil Heat Transfer Predictions Using CFD,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68051.
Pecnik, R., Pieringer, P., and Sanz, W., 2005, “Numerical Investigation of the Secondary Flow of a Transonic Turbine Stage Using Various Turbulence Closures,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68754.
Mansour, M. L., Hosseini, K. M., Liu, J. S., and Goswami, S., 2006, “Assessment of the Impact of Laminar-Turbulent Transition on the Accuracy of Heat Transfer Coefficient Prediction in High Pressure Turbines,” ASME Paper No. GT2006-90273.
Tallman, J. A., Haldeman, C. W., Dunn, M. G., Tolpadi, A. K., and Bergholz, R. F., 2009, “Heat Transfer Measurements and Predictions for a Modern, High-Pressure, Transonic Turbine, Including Endwalls,” ASME J. Turbomach., 131, 021001. [CrossRef]
Kays, W. M., Crawford, M. E., and Weigand, B., 2004, Convective Heat and Mass Transfer, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Praisner, T. J., and Clark, J. P., 2007, “Predicting Transition in Turbomachinery - Part I: A Review and New Model Development,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129, pp. 1–13. [CrossRef]
Luo, J., and Razinsky, E., 2008, “Prediction of Heat Transfer and Flow Transition on Transonic Turbine Airfoils Under High Freestream Turbulence,” ASME Paper No. GT2008-50868.
Kusterer, K., Hagedorn, T., Bohn, D., Sugimoto, T., and Tanaka, R., 2005, “Improvement of a Film-Cooled Blade by Application of the Conjugate Calculation Technique,” ASME Paper No. GT2005-68555.
Luo, J., and Razinsky, E., 2007, “Conjugate Heat Transfer Analysis of a Cooled Turbine Vane Using the V2F Turbulence Model,” ASME J. Turbomach., 129, pp. 773–781. [CrossRef]
He, L., and Oldfield, M. L. G., 2009, “Unsteady Conjugate Heat Transfer Modelling,” ASME Paper No. GT2009-59174.
“STAR-CD Version 4.10: Methodology,” 2009, CD-adapco Group, New York/London.
Durbin, P. A., 2009, “Limiters and Wall Treatments in Applied Turbulence Modeling,” Fluid Dyn. Res., 41, 012203. [CrossRef]
Levchenya, A. M., and Smirnov, E. M., 2007, “CFD-Analysis of 3D Flow Structure and Endwall Heat Transfer in a Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade: Effects Of Grid Refinement,” West-East High Speed Flow Field Conference, Moscow, Russia, Nov.
Ames, F. E., Wang, C., and Barbot, P. A., 2002, “Measurement and Prediction of the Influence of Catalytic and Dry Low Nox Combustor Turbulence on Vane Surface Heat Transfer,” ASME Paper No. GT2002-30524.
Hylton, L. D., Milhec, M. S., Turner, E. R., Nealy, D. A., and York, R. E., 1983, “Analytical and Experimental Evaluation of the Heat Transfer Distribution Over the Surface of Turbine Vanes,” NASA CR Report No. 168015.
Hinze, J. O., 1975, Turbulence, McGraw-Hill, New York.
Ames, F. E., 1994, “Experimental Study of Vane Heat Transfer and Aerodynamics at Elevated Levels of Turbulence,” NASA CR Report No. 4633.
Horlock, J. H., and Denton, J. D., 2005, “A Review Of Some Early Design Practice Using Computational Fluid Dynamics and a Current Perspective,” ASME J. Turbomach., 127, pp. 5–13. [CrossRef]


Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 1

Comparison of CFD mesh: wall-function (WF) versus low-Reynolds-number (LRN)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 2

CFD-predicted loading versus data at three spanwise sections (50 %, 10 %, 2.5 %, Case #2). (a) k-ɛ with wall-function. (b) SST with wall-function and LRN.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 3

Streamlines and secondary vortices (predicted by SST with wall-function) through the turbine passage (wall colored by heat flux). (a) Suction side view (vortex cores shown in white curves). (b) Second view (horseshoe vortex, downwash; passage vortex).

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 4

CFD-predicted HTC versus data at three spanwise locations: impact of turbulence model and near-wall treatment (SST_wf, SST_lrn versus V2F). (a) 50 % span (S/C < 0 pressure side; > 0 suction side). (b) 25 % span. (c) 10 % span.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 5

HTC predicted by k-ɛ_wf and k-ɛ_lrn models versus data at mid-span (Case #2; Tu1 = 8 %): impact of length scale and wall treatment. (a) k-ɛ_lrn model. (b) k-ɛ_wf model.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 6

Heat transfer coefficients predicted by the k-ε, realizable k-ε, and SST models with wall-function versus the data and flat-plate correlation at 50 %, 25 %, 10 % span (Case #2). (a) 50 % span. (b) 25 % span. (c) 10 % span.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 7

Impact of the definitions of HTC (HTC1 = Q•w/(Tt1-Tw), HTC2 = Q•w/(Taw-Tw)) on the predictions (by the SST model with wall-function; 10 % span of Case #2)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 8

Predicted Stanton number (St × 1000) on the endwall (by SST model with wall-function) compared with data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 9

Predicted Stanton number (St × 1000) on the blade (by SST model with wall-function) in comparison to data

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 10

CFD-predicted HTC on the blade and endwall: effects of turbulence modeling. (a) Suction side view. (b) Pressure side view.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 11

HTC predicted by k-ε and SST with wall-function versus flat-plate correlation and data at the 50 % span (Case #6)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 12

SST-predicted HTC versus flat-plate correlation and data at 25 %, 10 % span: Impact of Reynolds number (Case #2 versus Case #6). (a) 25 % span. (b) 10 % span.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 13

HTC predicted by k-ε and SST with wall-function versus flat-plate correlation and data at 25 % span (Case #5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 14

CFD-predicted (by SST_wf) isentropic Mach number versus data at 10 % span (Case #6 versus Case #5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 15

CFD-predicted HTC (by SST with wall-function) versus data at 10 % span (Case #6 versus Case #5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 16

CFD-predicted (by SST with wall-function) HTC versus data at three sections (Case #5)

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 17

CFD-predicted (with the SST_wf model) contour plots of total temperature on cross-sections and streamlines. (a) Total temperature (normalized). (b) Streamlines and total temperature.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 18

CFD-predicted HTC (by the SST model and wall function) on the nozzle [23] versus the flat-plate laminar and turbulent boundary layer correlations and test data. (a) CFD mesh. (b) Predicted HTC versus data.

Grahic Jump Location
Fig. 19

CFD-predicted HTC (by the low-Reynolds-number SST model) on NASA turbine nozzle (MarkII) versus the flat-plate TBL correlation and test data. (a) CFD mesh. (b) HTC (ARC = surface arc length).



Some tools below are only available to our subscribers or users with an online account.

Related Content

Customize your page view by dragging and repositioning the boxes below.

Related Journal Articles
Related eBook Content
Topic Collections

Sorry! You do not have access to this content. For assistance or to subscribe, please contact us:

  • TELEPHONE: 1-800-843-2763 (Toll-free in the USA)
  • EMAIL: asmedigitalcollection@asme.org
Sign In